时间:2018年01月21日 04:44:12

Yael, do you notice the days changing length over the course of the year?雅埃尔,你有没有注意到一年中每一天的长度在改变么?Sure, Don, it stays light later in the summer and gets dark earlier in the winter.当然了,唐,夏天白天长些,冬天天黑得早些。No, thats not it. I mean the whole day feels longer.不,我说的不是这件事。我的意思是一整天感觉变长了些。Im not sure thats possible, Don arent days always 24 hours long?我不确定它是不是真的,难道一天不总是24个小时么?Well, it actually takes 23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds for the Earth to rotate on its axis.其实,实际上,地球绕地轴自转一周需要23小时56分零4秒。But in fact the Earths rotation is slowing down all the time because of the gravitational pull of the moon.但实际上,因为有月球的万有引力作用,地球自转一直在变慢。Does this mean that the days really do feel longer?这就意味着一天真让人觉得变长了?Nope. The moon slows us down by about two milliseconds a century, so that even 1 million years ago days were only twenty seconds shorter.不。每过一个世纪,月球使我们慢了2毫秒。因此,即使比起一百万年前的某一天,现在也仅仅慢了20秒。I doubt I would have noticed that.人们会注意到么?Maybe not a million years ago. But 400 million years ago days were 21 and a half hours long, which you would have noticed.可能不是一百万年前,而是4亿年前的某一天,当时一天长21.5小时,这样你可能就能注意到。What you really would have noticed is that the time it takes the Earth to get around the sun hasnt changed, so that back then there were 400 days a year.你真正能意识到的是:地球绕着太阳公转的时间没有改变,所以那时一年有400天。Scientists have found fossil evidence from tropical corals that existed at that time, and they have about 400 daily growth rings per year.从存活在那时的热带珊瑚中,科学家已经发现了化石据。它们每年大约有400个生长日轮。So someone was enjoying all those extra sunny days.所以过去的人能享受这些多出来的日子。 201312/270919

Governing partnerships管理合伙人制Electing the boss选举新老板Deloitte prepares to vote for a new CEO德勤准备选举新任CEOEVER since the inception of the corporation, the “principal-agent” problem has bedevilled shareholders. The partnership structure that prevails at consulting, accounting and law firms is supposedly free of the risk of executives acting in their own interest at the ownersexpense. As the businesses belong to the employees, the incentives of managers and proprietors should be aligned. But leaders there must pay greater heed to the views of their worker-shareholders than do corporate bosses, who need only answer to boards selected by proxy votes that are rarely contested, and can simply issue orders to staff.自公司成立以来,“委托代理”问题一直困扰着股东们。这种合伙制结构在咨询公司、会计师事务所和法律公司当中非常盛行,它被认为能够避免这样一种风险,即高管用所有者的资金从事跟自己利益相关的活动。虽然公司业务是由雇员经手,但是管理者的目标应该与企业所有者的利益一致。但领导人必须更加注意他们的同时也生为公司股东的员工们的意见,而不是公司老板们,因为他们只需要向精选出来并很少提出质疑的董事会回答问题、只需要简单地命令员工就行了。This distinction is never more apparent than when the head of a partnership steps down. They will be dusting off the ballot boxes at Deloitte, the biggest of the “Big Four” global accounting firms. On August 15th Joe Echevarria, the boss of the American arm, said he would be leaving the firm. Rather than summon an executive-search agency to do some discreet recruiting, Deloitte will hold a leadership election.然而当其中一位合伙人下台时,这样的差别对待就更加明显了。他们将准备在德勤重新使用投票选举。8月15日,德勤美国CEO乔埃切瓦里,说他要离开公司。此次,德勤决定举行领导人选举而不是通过猎头谨慎招聘来产生新任CEO。The firm does not disclose the mechanics of the process. But most partnerships form a nomination committee on their executive boards to assess candidates on both their visions for the firm and how much support they command from peers. After a series of informal consultations with fellow partners, the committee delicately advises likely losers to bow out gracefully. If these “soundings” yield a clear-cut heir apparent, the firm may proceed straight to a coronation vote where the new leader is rubber-stamped.虽然德勤没有披露选举过程中的机制,但大多数采用合伙制的企业都会在董事会形成一个提名委员会,通过对公司未来的计划以及同行持率等指标来评估候选人。在与合作伙伴进行一系列非正式磋商之后,委员会委婉地建议可能的失败者退出竞选。如果这些“声音”能够产生一个明确的候选人,那么公司可以不再进行评估和审核,而直接授权这位候选人。If there are a few strong contenders, the process starts to resemble a political campaign. Candidates often write manifestos outlining their plans, and occasionally address the electorate at annual partnersmeetings. Behind the scenes, horse-trading abounds, as the candidates promise juicy posts to influential partners who can deliver a block of support from colleagues. Each partner usually gets one vote, regardless of their equity stake.如果竞选中出现了多个强有力的竞争者,这个竞选过程就开始变得像一个政治运动。候选人经常写下竞选宣言提出他们的计划,偶尔也会在每年的合作人会议上强调选举事宜。但是在幕后,交易比比皆是,因为候选人会向具有影响力的能带来同事持的合伙人承诺以丰厚的回报。每个合伙人无论股权多少都只能投一票。The race to succeed Mr Echevarria is likely to be hotly contested. Under his stewardship since 2011, Deloitte has grown impressively. In the first two years of his term, revenues at its American arm rose from .9 billion to .9 billion. The other members of the Big Four—EY, PwC and KPMG—sold their consulting arms after the Enron scandal and have since had to rebuild them from scratch. Deloitte stayed in consulting and Mr Echevarria has pushed that side of the business.想要从埃切瓦里先生手里拿下接力棒也不是件容易的事。自2011以来,在他的领导下,德勤的业绩是非常惊人的。在他任期的前两年,其所在的美国分部收入从119亿美元上升到139亿美元。而四大的其他成员,安永、普华永道和毕马威,现在不得不重新建立他们在安然事件中出售的咨询分。德勤仍然保持着咨询业务,这也是埃切瓦里先生努力的方向。Since consultings profit margins are fatter than for auditing, Mr Echevarrias strategy has surely inflated partnerspaypackets. But it carries a greater risk of conflicts of interest, given the temptation for accounting firms to cut their clients slack on audits and compliance work in order to retain lucrative consulting business. On August 18th New Yorks regulators fined PwC m for watering down a report on sanctions-busting transactions with Iran at a Japanese bank; they punished Deloitte for a similar violation last year. The leaders of the Big Four have customarily come from the auditing side. If Deloittes partners vote for a consultant, it will leave little doubt that the firms roots in bean counting are being left further behind.由于咨询的利润率比审计要高,埃切瓦里先生的策略肯定已经让合伙人的荷包膨胀了许多。但同时,考虑到如果要保持咨询业务的丰厚利润,它就需要削减审计和合规业务的客户,因此德勤也面临着更大的利益冲突的风险。8月18日,纽约监管机构因为普华永道淡化了日本违反制裁伊朗禁令的报告而对其处以2500万美元的罚款;他们在去年也对德勤类似的违规行为做出了惩罚。四大的领导人通常来自审计方。如果德勤合伙人投票给咨询顾问,那它就是毫无疑问地向外界表示,该公司的审计业务会落得更远。 /201408/324725

Many of the mothers have been bitten bravely trying to protect their calves. 许多海豚妈妈在保护小海豚时都曾遭到攻击。“Im a little worried about Pucks calf, shes really having the calf at peak, sharks hack time.我有点担心帕克的孩子,它在鲨鱼攻击最频繁的时候生宝宝。Most of the calves are born by December.大多数小海豚在12月出生。This way, the calf has a little bit of time to learn how to breath, stay with the mum wont get into trouble.那样,小海豚就会有一点时间学习呼吸,紧靠着妈妈,不要陷入麻烦中。But Pucks got a big family, maybe they can look out for.”但帕克有一个大家庭,可能它们会照顾它。Puck and unborn calf are in grave danger.帕克和它未出生的孩子身陷险境。Perhaps sensing her vulnerability, Pucks family gather around her.可能感受到了它的脆弱,它的家人把它围了起来。There is one member of the beaches missing.但比奇家庭的一个成员不见了。Mummys boy India is disappeared.妈妈的好孩子,因迪亚,不见了。The next day,the rest of the team keep an eye on Puck and look out for missing India.接下来的几天里,小组的其他成员会把精力集中在帕克身上并且寻找失踪的因迪亚。With still no sign of Puck giving birth, Janet heads north to study the surfer mums of Peron.帕克还是没有分娩的迹象,珍妮特前往北部研究庇隆海滩会冲浪的海豚。“Here in Shark Bay, everybody has different hunting tactics but thats particularly true for the females and not the males and the females pass them on from mother to daughter.”鲨鱼湾这个地方,每只海豚都有自己的狩猎方式。但只是雌海豚这样,雄海豚不一样。猎物在海豚妈妈和女儿间传来传去。Janet is here to find out which daughters are carrying on the surfing tradition.珍妮特想找出还保留着冲浪传统的海豚。“Geeze,look at that.” Down on the beach,hunting conditions are perfect.哇,快看哪!海滩上的狩猎条件很不错。“We just got here this morning at Peron Point and it looks like there might be some beaching quite earler this morning.” 我们在早晨到了庇隆海滩,好像有一些海豚已经在冲浪了。Its high tide, and huge shoals of mullet are feeding in the shallows.潮汐带来了大量的鱼群在浅水区掠食。 201404/291445

Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:Ever since I asked my sister, ;Vera,; to drive me to an upcoming surgery appointment,自从我要求我“维拉”开车载我来到即将到来的手术预约后,shes been pestering me for access to my doctor so she can question him about my health and stop him from doing the surgery.她就一直缠着我找我的医生,这样她就可以问他关于我的健康状况并且阻止他做手术。I told Vera that my doctor refuses to talk to her.我告诉维拉我的医生拒绝同她讲话。She doesnt believe me, but its the truth.她不相信我,但这是事实。He cant talk to anyone about my medical status.他不能对任何人说出我的医疗状况。Now she wont speak to me.现在她都不跟我说话了。I have begged her to forgive me, but havent heard a word either by phone or e-mail.我恳求她原谅我,但通过电话或电子邮件没有听到过只言片语。She means a lot to me.她对我意味着很多。I need her in my life, and Ive told her that several times.我的生命中需要她,我已经好几次这样告诉过她。Please advise. Bereft Sister.请给出你们的建议。贝拉福特。Dear Sister:亲爱的贝拉福特:It sounds as if Vera has been bossing you around for a long time and doesnt like being denied the opportunity to keep doing it.听起来好像维拉很长时间以来一直指挥你并且不喜欢被拒绝继续这样做的机会。If you want Vera to consult your doctor, you can give him permission to discuss your status with her.如果你希望维拉咨询一下你的医生,你可以允许他和她讨论你的医疗状况。If you think her concern is intrusive, say nothing more.如果你认为她的担忧是侵入性的,就什么也别说。We suspect Vera will eventually come around, although she wants to punish you a bit first.虽然她首先想着怎样教训你,但我们怀疑维拉最终会过来的。201309/256164

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