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2018年01月21日 04:31:06    日报  参与评论()人

宜春上高县中人民医院鹰钩鼻驼峰鼻翘鼻鞍鼻多少钱江西省丰城市人民医院开双眼皮多少钱丰城市除皱的费用 Butterflies in America美国的蝴蝶To marvel at all things所有事都值得惊奇A splendid twinning of natural science and America自然科学与美利坚民族的完美结合Butterfly People: An American Encounter with the Beauty of the World.By William Leach.蝴蝶客:美国与世界之美的相遇“BUTTERFLIES and butterflies”, wrote Walt Whitman, “continue to flit to and fro, all sorts, white, yellow, brown, purple”. Whitman may have had an eye for colour, but as a mere journalist and poet with perhaps a touch of lepidopterophilia, he does not quite qualify as one of William Leachs “Butterfly People”.“蝴蝶、还是蝴蝶”,沃尔特惠特曼写道,“它们不停地来回飞过,各种各样的,有白的、黄的、棕色的还有紫色的”。惠特曼对颜色是有判断力,但是仅仅作为一位知道点鳞翅类昆虫的记者和诗人,并不是威廉所称的“蝴蝶客”True butterfly people were far more serious. They were enthusiasts and obsessives who took advantage of the unfettered access to undeveloped land afforded by a young country pressing its frontier westward. They were artisans and aesthetes: scientists of a sort that gradually ceased to exist as the natural sciences grew more formal and mature.真正的蝴蝶客远远严谨的多。他们狂热而迫切,年轻的国家正在向西部扩充领土,所以他们可以利用这种优势,自由使用未开发的土地。他们是手艺人兼审美家:这类所谓的科学家,随着自然科学发展得更加正式和成熟,这类科学家渐渐不存在了。Mr Leachs compelling thesis is that 19th-century America provided a uniquely hospitable time and place for lovers, and especially collectors, of butterflies. Agricultural toil and westward expansion brought droves of ordinary people into intimate contact with vast expanses of pristine lands. Most 19th-century Americans, Mr Leach writes—uncharitably but probably accurately—saw nature “as something to dig up or harvest from the earth or to be torn down and transformed into real estate or money”, and yet because there was so much untouched land, even the most rapacious miner or builder would in the course of his life come into contact with the natural world on a scale and in a way unknown to Americans today.里奇先生的有趣命题是:19世纪的美国为蝴蝶爱好者,特别是收藏家提供了一个独一无二的热情好客的时代。农业耕作和西部扩张将大批的普通人与广袤无际的未开垦土地紧密联系在一起。大多数19世纪的美国人,里奇先生写道,视自然为“可以从地下挖掘或从地上收割的,可以推倒盖房子或者卖钱的东西”,他的评语尽管尖刻,却也许十分精准。可是因为有如此之多未开垦的土地,即使是最贪婪的财主和建设者也会在他一生中与大自然发生联系,这种联系无论从规模上、在形式上, 都是如今的美国人无法想象的。Perhaps more important, “natural science” had not yet become “biology”. It was practised out of doors rather than in a laboratory, and aside from the classification madness of Linnaeus, it was light on systems and formality. Its early titans, such as Charles Darwin and Alexander von Humboldt, a Prussian aristocrat whose masterwork, “The Cosmos”, began being published in 1845, “seemed indifferent to drawing lines between art and science,” Mr Leach writes. “Their prose was often excellent and able, so much so as to later seem unscientific. They often wrote on behalf of the artistic attractions of nature.” They led with a sense of curiosity driven by rapture and wonder. Natural science belonged not to the trained and pedigreed biologist, but to the passionate amateur: they were “naturalists”, not biologists.或许更重要的是,“自然科学”没有发展为“生物学”。它的研究在户外进行而不是在实验室,不像林奈繁杂的分类法,体系和形式是次要的。有关研究它的早期的泰斗,像查尔斯达尔文,以及亚历山大洪堡特,一位在1845年出版名著《大宇宙》的普鲁士贵族,“似乎对划分科学与艺术的界线漠不关心”,里奇先生写道。“他们写的散文总是出色易懂,以至于对后人来说显得不科学,他们常常为了自然的艺术吸引力而写文章。”他们引领了一种由狂喜和惊奇驱使的好奇感。自然科学不属于受过训练的正统生物学家,但却属于热情激昂的业余爱好者:他们是“物学家”,而不是生物学家。Butterfly people learned by observing, thinking and arguing. They included Samuel Scudder, who named the monarch butterfly and wrote a magisterial, three-volume work about North American butterflies that won raves from lepidopterys literary champion, Vladimir Nabokov, 70 years after its publication. Another was William Henry Edwards. His great grandfather was Americas most renowned Puritan theologian, and he eventually wrote his own three-volume doorstop.蝴蝶客们从观察、思考和争论中学习。他们中包括萨缪尔斯卡德,他命名了黑脉金蝴蝶,写了一本关于北美蝴蝶的三卷的权威著作,这部书出版70年后令鳞翅类昆虫的文学巨匠弗拉基米尔纳科夫惊叹不已。另一位是威廉亨利爱德华。他了不起的祖父是美国最有名望的普鲁士神学家,他最终写出了自己三卷鸿篇巨著。Mr Leach is at his best when profiling men such as Edwards, Scudder and others, including solitary, taciturn Herman Strecker and resentful, bilious Augustus Grote. These are the amateur giants on whose broad shoulders much contemporary biology and entomology rests.里奇先生最擅长介绍爱德华、斯卡德等等,包括沉默寡言的隐士斯特雷克和坏脾气的奥古斯塔斯格罗特。当代生物学和昆虫学正是站在这些业余研究巨匠宽阔的肩膀上。 /201405/297251宜春祛疤

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宜春韩美整形美容医院去毛怎么样 Yaeuml;l: Hey Don, whatcha doing?嘿,Don, 你在干什么?Don: Booking a trip to Glacier National Park. I want to go there before the glaciers disappear.订张去冰川国家国家公园的票。在冰川融化之前我想去那儿一趟。Y: What do you mean?你是什么意思啊?D: Scientists predict that within twenty years the parks remaining glaciers will melt away.科学家们预测20年之内这个公园内的冰川将渐渐融化。Y: Why?为什么啊?D: Whether its because of human industry or natural cycles, temperatures are rising. And when temperatures rise, glaciers melt.不管是因为人类工业还是自然循环,气温都在逐渐上升。而当气温上升时,冰川就会融化。Y: Forgive me for sounding insensitive, but so what? Glaciers are nice to look at, but what difference will it make if they melt?原谅我的后知后觉,但是那又如何?冰川看起来很漂亮,但是如果它们融化又会有什么不同呢?D: Glaciers are more than just pretty pictures. Theyre the main sources for many rivers that people depend on for drinking water, irrigation, and hydroelectric power.冰川不只是壮美这么简单。它们是许多河流的源头。人们的饮用水、灌溉和水力电气的能源都需要依赖这些河流。Y: So are rivers drying up?那么,河流会变得干涸吗?D: Not yet, but the amount of glacier water affects a rivers flow volume. 还不确定,但冰川水的量会影响河水的流量。The lower the flow volume the less water there is for drinking, power, and everything else people depend on rivers for. 流量越少,供人们饮用,发电以及做其他一切事的水就会越少。Also, greater water volume helps dilute a rivers chemical content. 另外,丰富的水量可以帮助稀释河流内的化学物质。The less water a river has, the higher the chemical concentration, which can pollute a lake fed by the river.一条河的水量越少,其内的化学物质浓度就会越高。这会污染这条河注入的湖泊。Y: I didnt know that. But how about this...Higher temperatures mean that more water will evaporate from the oceans, which means more precipitation, including snow. 我倒不清楚那个。但这个呢?温度越高就意味着海洋的水将会有更多被蒸发,也就是说降水量也会增多,包括雪。So maybe some glaciers will actually grow even though its getting warmer.所以说尽管气候是在变暖,但冰川的数量还可能会增加。D: Some scientists make that argument, but most dont buy it. 有些科学家做出了那样的论断,但大部分人并不认同。Sure, some glaciers are growing temporarily thanks to unusual amounts of snow, but theyre the exception to the rule. 确实,一些冰川的暂时性生长是因为不寻常的降雪数量,但这只是冰川生成过程中的例外情况。Generally, glaciers grow when the amount of snow that melts in the summer is less than the amount that falls in the winter. 一般来说,夏天雪融化的数量少于冬天降雪的数量时才会生成冰川。Right now, more snow is melting than falling.现在,融化的雪量比降雪量多。Y: I guess you should book that trip. 我想你该订下这趟旅程。201308/251506丰城市红十字会医院晒斑雀斑老年斑咖啡斑多少钱宜春祛痘哪家医院好

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