2017年10月24日 08:21:20|来源:国际在线|编辑:搜搜营养
SAN FRANCISCO — Judging from the large bags of colorful Legos on the floor and dozens of plastic base plates piled on tables, this room could have been the activities station for a well-funded summer camp. And the five women and men drifting in and out, slicing open boxes and rooting around for the right size toy bricks, were young enough to pass as camp counselors.旧金山——从地上放着的大袋大袋色乐高积木和桌子上的几十个塑料底座判断,这个房间像一个经费充裕的夏令营活动站。五个男女忙进忙出,他们划开盒子,寻找大小合适的积木;这几个人年纪轻轻,很容易被人当成夏令营的辅导员。Only the place where they were working is the opposite of summer camp: Alcatraz, the notoriously bleak military prison turned maximum-security penitentiary turned national park. With its banks of small windows and a “gun gallery” for surveillance, this building is where inmates once laundered military uniforms. It’s usually off limits to tourists.只不过这里跟夏令营正好相反——这里是阿尔卡特拉斯,它起初是一座凄凉暗淡、臭名昭著的军方监狱,后来成了最高安全级别的监狱,最后又变成了国家公园。这栋建筑有成排的小窗口和一座用来监视犯人的“廊”,犯人曾在这里给部队洗军装。该楼平时禁止游客入内。But starting Sept. 27, visitors will be able to see for themselves, sp across the floor, where so many Legos were heading: an ambitious installation by the Chinese activist-artist Ai Weiwei, featuring 176 portraits of prisoners of conscience and political exiles around the world — from the South African leader Nelson Mandela and the Tibetan pop singer Lolo to the American whistle-blower Edward Snowden — composed of 1.2 million Lego pieces. The work is part of an exhibition running through April 26 called “@Large: Ai Weiwei on Alcatraz,” organized by For-Site, a San Francisco producer of public art, in the prison hospital, A Block cells, dining hall and that former laundry building.但是从9月27日起,游客们就可以入内一探究竟了——许多的乐高积木在地上铺陈开来:这件规模宏大的装置艺术是中国社会活动者、艺术家艾未未的作品,由176幅来自世界各地的政治犯与政治流亡者的肖像构成,从南非领导人纳尔逊·曼德拉(Nelson Mandela)、西藏流行歌手洛洛(Lolo)到美国的揭秘者爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden),它们由120万块乐高积木制成。这件作品是截止至4月26日结束的展览“@Large: 艾未未在阿尔卡特拉斯”的一部分,展览由旧金山公共艺术制作机构Fore-Site承办,地点设在监狱医院、A区牢房、用餐大厅和这座以前的洗衣楼。Given Mr. Ai’s sharp critiques of the Chinese government and the tireless campaigning for freedom of expression that led to his own imprisonment in 2011, he could have included himself in the group portrait. He did not. But his 81-day detainment, a numbing and mostly solitary confinement, fueled some of the exhibition’s themes, and the seizure of his passport at that time — it was never returned — has shaped the making of this show.艾未未因为对中国政府的尖锐,以及为言论自由的奋力抗争,结果在2011年受到监禁,他本可以把自己的肖像也加入这组群像之中。但他并没有这样做。81天的关押经历——令人麻木而且基本上是单独监禁——启发了该展览中的若干主题;当时他的护照也遭没收,至今尚未归还,这也决定了该展览的制作方式。“Even now, I am still in a soft detention, my passport withheld by the state and my right to move freely across borders restricted,” he explained in a series of lengthy email exchanges.“直到如今,我还在软禁之中,我的护照被当局扣押,我自由出国的正当权利受到限制,”他在一系列很长的电子邮件往来中写道。His situation makes the “@Large” title seem wishful, if not ironic, and raises questions both practical and philosophical. How exactly did this outspoken artist manage to realize this site-specific exhibition without ever visiting the site and despite an ever-present risk of reincarceration? And to what extent are installations like this — which required more than 100 volunteers in San Francisco and For-Site staffers on Alcatraz Island helping with assembly, as well as Amnesty International contributing research — truly Mr. Ai’s work?他的处境令“@Large”这个展览标题显得即便不是充满讽刺,也如同一种愿望,并且提出了实务层面与哲学层面的问题。这位坦率直言的艺术家根本无法参观场地,还常常冒着再度遭到监禁的危险,他又该怎样实现这个在特定场地举办的展览呢?此外,这件装置作品需要旧金山的100多名志愿者与For-Site的员工到阿尔卡特拉斯岛拼装完成,大赦国际组织也协助进行了研究工作,那么,这样的装置作品在多大程度上真正是艾未未的作品呢?Certainly, the monumental Lego installation, “Trace,” has his fingerprints all over it. A few celebrity freedom fighters aside, most of the portraits showcase figures “forgotten by society,” he said. One is Shin Suk-ja, a South Korean prisoner of North Korea who was sent into penal labor with her two daughters in 1987 after her husband defected to Europe. Ms. Shin appears to have died in captivity, according to an information binder provided by For-Site.当然,这件丰碑式的乐高装置“Trace”上到处都有艾未未的痕迹。他说,除了几个著名的自由斗士,大多数肖像展现的是“被社会遗忘”的人。其中包括申淑子(Shin Suk-ja),她是一个被朝鲜关押的韩国人,1987年,因为丈夫叛逃欧洲,她和两个女儿一起被关进劳改营。根据For-Site提供的资料,申淑子似乎已在囚禁中死去。The new work recalls Mr. Ai’s responses to the Sichuan earthquake of 2008, which provoked him to identify students killed as a result of shoddy school construction and to create perhaps his most powerful installation, “Remembering.” His mural in Munich in 2009 used 9,000 custom-made children’s backpacks to spell out his message: “She lived happily in this world for seven years.”这件新作令人想起艾未未对2008年四川地震的反应。很多学生因质量低劣的校舍建筑在地震中死去,艾未未确认了这些学生的身份后,创作了可能是他最有力量的装置作品《记住》。这是2009年他在慕尼黑的墙体装置艺术,使用了9000个特别定制的学生背包,拼出了他的信息:“她在这个世界上开心地生活过七年”。His Lego work likewise provides a visual accounting, creating conceptually a community of prisoners too large to be ignored.他的这件乐高作品也同样提供了一种视觉记述,从概念上创作出一群巨大到无法忽视的囚犯。“I think it’s a big leap for Weiwei, addressing free speech issues and human rights violations not just in China but globally,” said Cheryl Haines, the founder of For-Site. Asked whether his broader focus could help protect him from retaliation or reincarceration by his own government, she responded: “I honestly don’t know the answer. The Chinese government is so unpredictable in its responses.”“我认为这是艾未未的飞跃,它表达出言论自由问题与对人权的侵犯不只在中国有,也是全球问题,”For-Site的创始人谢里尔·海恩斯(Cheryl Haines)说。在问到他这种更为广泛的关注是否会免遭中国政府的报复或再次监禁时,海恩斯答道:“我真的不知道。中国政府的反应太难预测了。”Mr. Ai, long a fan of clay bricks for their simplicity, said the idea of toy bricks came in part from witnessing his 5-year-old son’s “endless passion” for Legos. “They are very simple and straightforward, but can also be easily destroyed and taken apart, y to be remade and reimagined,” he wrote. “I like the idea of using this language and material as an expression of human nature and the hand of creation.”艾未未长期以来都喜欢砖块的简洁,他说使用玩具积木这个主意部分是来自他五岁的儿子对乐高积木“无穷的热情”。“它们简单直接,但可以轻易被摧毁和分解,随时可以进行重建和重新想象,”他写道。“我喜欢运用这种语言和材料来表达人性与造物主之手的想法。”He largely managed the assembly process from his Beijing studio. He made several sample Lego portraits before generating digital blueprints for the full suite, breaking down each portrait into four or more templates used by the volunteers. To keep details of the show under wraps until completion, volunteers were never shown images of the full artwork.他主要是在北京的工作室管理组装过程。他做了几个乐高肖像样品,之后又制作了整套作品的数码设计图,把每个肖像分解为四个或更多供志愿者使用的模版。为了在完成之前不泄露展览的细节,志愿者们都没有看过完整作品的图像。He also sent three assistants from his studio to California to coordinate the Lego project, and two others (“different skill sets,” he noted) to install near it a massive dragon kite made by Chinese artisans from traditional bamboo and fabric. The body of the kite features emblems of some 30 countries implicated in “Trace.”他还派遣工作室的三名助手到加利福尼亚协助完成这个乐高项目,并派另外两人(“不同的技能”他说)去安装旁边的一个巨大的龙风筝,它由传统的竹子和织物制成,由中国手工艺人制作。风筝的身体上有“Trace”中涉及的大约30个左右的国家的象征图案。The kite is “symbolic of freedom,” he wrote, even more so within a prison setting. The work also has personal associations, from his boyhood in the 1960s, when he built a kite with his father, the poet Ai Qing, who by then had been banished by Mao’s regime to the Gobi Desert and forced to clean toilets.艾未未写道,这个风筝是“自由的象征”,特别是它被放置在一个监狱的环境里。这件作品也有个人化的联想,涉及他的童年,那是20世纪60年代,他和父亲,诗人艾青一起做了一个风筝,艾青当时被毛泽东政府流放到戈壁沙漠,被迫做清扫厕所的劳动。The family lived in a hole dug in the earth. To build a kite, father and son obtained the bamboo rods from a neighbor’s door curtain and “collected string from all families nearby,” Mr. Ai wrote.全家人生活在一个地上挖出的洞里。为了做风筝,父子两人弄来邻居门帘上的竹篾,还“去附近所有人家讨来了线,”艾未未写道。“All materials were precious,” he continued. “I will never forget the first time I saw the kite hanging far from us in the wind, so far out that our eyes had to search for its position in the sky.”“所有材料都很珍贵,”他写道,“我永远不会忘记第一次看着风筝在风中高飞时的情形,飞那么高,我们只得在空中搜寻它的位置。”Another installation, set in the penitentiary dining hall, allows visitors to send postcards to many of the prisoners in “Trace,” a gesture inspired by Mr. Ai’s memory of his own acute loneliness when detained. Clusters of tiny porcelain flowers planted in toilets and sinks of the hospital examination rooms reflect his penchant for using this traditional material in unlikely ways.另一件装置放在监狱的犯人饭厅,参观者可以写明信片给“Trace”中涉及的许多囚犯,灵感来自艾未未对自己拘押期间极度孤独感的记忆。在医疗检查室内,有一簇簇小小的陶瓷花朵从马桶和水槽里生长出来,这反映出他以不太可能的方式使用传统材料的倾向。Though Mr. Ai, 57, is Internet-savvy, with more than 250,000 Twitter followers, he is blocked from visiting certain websites and has slow download times like other Chinese residents. He thus relied on For-Site as his collaborator on one research-intensive, permissions-heavy art work in particular: a sound installation in Cell Block A. The cells, usually closed to tourists, look decrepit, their paint peeling and plumbing corroded, but 12 will be opened for visitors to enter, sit on a stool and listen to recordings by famous political prisoners, from the music of Fela Kuti of Nigeria and Pussy Riot, the Russian feminist group, to poetry ings by Liao Yiwu of China and Mahjoub Sharif, who died in April in Sudan.艾未未57岁,精通互联网,在Twitter上有超过25万名关注者,但他和其他中国居民一样,某些特定网站无法访问,有时下载速度很慢。A区牢房的声音装置展品需要大量研究和许可工作,因此在这个展品上他需要依靠For-Site这个合作者。这些牢房,通常不对游客开放,它们看上去非常破旧,油漆斑驳,水管已遭腐蚀,但是其中12间将向参观者开放,允许他们入内,坐在一个凳子上倾听若干著名政治犯的录音,其中包括尼加拉瓜的费拉·库蒂(Fela Kuti)与俄罗斯的女性主义团体“Pussy Riot”的音乐,还有中国的廖亦武以及今年四月在苏丹去世的马乔布·谢里夫(Mahjoub Sharif)的诗朗诵。Ms. Haines of For-Site played a critical role in the project, raising .5 million from mainly private sources to cover expenses, including 0,000 for Legos. No government money was provided, but she worked closely on research and visitor logistics with the National Park Service, which oversees Alcatraz, and the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, a nonprofit group.For-Site的海恩斯女士在这个项目中起到了关键作用,她筹集了350万美元的经费,主要是来自私人,其中46万美元来自乐高公司。没有任何来自政府的资金。但她与负责监管阿尔卡特拉斯的美国国家公园与非盈利组织金门国家公园管理处密切合作,进行研究工作和游客接待工作。Back in 2011, while Mr. Ai was imprisoned, she was busy organizing an exhibition on the Golden Gate Bridge, tied to its 75th anniversary. It provided a good vantage for looking out at Alcatraz. “I kept thinking this would be a great place to activate with art,” she said.2011年,艾未未被监禁的时候,海恩斯正忙于在金门大桥组织一个和金门大桥落成75周年有关的展览。从那里可以很好地眺望阿尔卡特拉斯岛。“我一直都在想,这里会是一个进行艺术活动的好地方,”她说。Visiting Mr. Ai’s studio in Beijing after his release, Ms. Haines planted the seed with him. “I immediately accepted her offer,” he wrote.艾未未获释后,海恩斯去他的工作室拜访,为他带去了这个想法。“我立即接受了她的建议,”艾未未写道。On later visits, she brought him at his studio, which she describes as “very calm and well organized,” books and movies exploring the history and legends of Alcatraz, photographs of the prison, and site plans of buildings. In April, she carried in three conspicuous suitcases filled with Legos because his studio was unable to obtain enough for its prototypes. But customs officials never questioned her about them.海恩斯说,艾未未的工作室“非常安静,井井有条”,后来再去拜访时,她带去了有关阿尔卡特拉斯的历史与传奇的书籍和录像,监狱的照片,还有建筑的平面图。四月,她带去了三个引人瞩目的手提箱,里面装满乐高积木,因为他的工作室无法买到足够的做模型用的积木。但海关官员并未就这些积木对她进行询问。“In most cases, the authorities will not interfere with my art practice,” Mr. Ai explained. “Normally, interference only happens after the exhibition has aly begun.”艾未未说,“在大多数情况下,官方不会干预我的艺术实践;一般情况下,干扰是在作品开始展览后发生。”Conveying the physical facts of the prison to him was easy, she said. “What’s harder to communicate is the emotive or sensory content, the feeling you have walking into a room,” she said, describing the oddly calming light of the psychiatric ward, for example. “That’s something I tried more to do with him in person.”她说,向他传达监狱外观方面的资料并不难,“难的是传达情感或感知的内容,就是走进一个房间的感觉,”比如说,精神病人监护室里那种奇异而宁静的灯光,“这是我努力去亲身向他传递的东西。”She described her role as facilitator and curator, adding: “It’s Weiwei’s work. It’s his vision through and through.”她把自己的角色描述为协调者与策展人,并说:“这是未未的作品,从头到尾都是他的设想。”Richard Koshalek, who was director of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden when it organized its 2012 Ai Weiwei survey, said he, too, relied heavily on an outside curator — Mami Kataoka of Tokyo — as liaison because of the artist’s travel constraints.2012年赫希洪物馆和雕塑园主办艾未未展期间,理查德·科沙莱克(Richard Koshalek)担任馆长,他说,当时艾未未由于旅行受到限制,同样需要一位外部策展人,即来自东京的片冈美作为联络人。While Mr. Koshalek has not seen the Alcatraz exhibition, he described the concept as “very important for the city of San Francisco” for “going beyond museums and galleries to take universal issues of human rights directly into a public site, a site with a huge history of despair, penance and rage.”科沙莱克还没有看过阿尔卡特拉斯的展览,但他说这个概念“对于旧金山来说非常重要”,因为它“超越了物馆与画廊的范畴,把人权方面普遍存在的问题直接带入一个公共场所,而这个场所又有着失望、悔罪与愤怒的宏大历史。”The show is not designed to drive more tourist traffic to Alcatraz Island, which the National Park Service says is aly near capacity with 1.4 million to 1.5 million visitors a year. (Standard ferry tickets to Alcatraz, for adults, include access to the “@Large” exhibition at no extra charge.) Visitor numbers are capped to protect the site, a seabird habitat as well as a historic landmark.展览并非为了吸引更多游客来到阿尔卡特拉斯岛,国家公园说,公园每年的游客已接近140万人至150万人(到阿尔卡特拉斯岛的普通轮渡票是成人30美元,看“@Large”展览不另行收费)。为保护海鸟栖居地和历史建筑,设置了参观者人数上限。Initially, Mr. Ai envisioned visitors walking on the Lego portraits, not unlike the way museumgoers at the Tate Modern in London stepped on his carpet of one million hand-painted porcelain “sunflower seeds” in 2010 (until halted by hazardous levels of dust).艾未未最初的设想是让参观者在乐高肖像上走过,有点像2010年他在伦敦泰特现代艺术馆的展览,人们可以从地面上铺满的100万颗手绘的瓷质“葵花籽”上走过(后来因为行走扬起的灰尘达到危险程度而被中止)。This summer, the Alcatraz plans changed: Having 5,000 sightseers daily walking on “Trace” was ruled out, Mr. Ai said, for “technical and safety reasons.”今年夏天,阿尔卡特拉斯岛改变了计划,每日让5000名参观者从“Trace”上走过的方案被排除,艾未未说,是出于“技术与安全原因”。Then there is the change he would have made to “Trace” given a slightly different timeline — a reminder that any artwork about political dissidents is bound to be a work in progress.由于发生时间的微小差异,艾未未本来或许可以对“Trace”做出一个改动——这提醒人们,任何关于政治异见者的艺术作品都注定是不断发展的。He would have added an image of the Chinese civil rights lawyer Pu Zhiqiang, who represented Mr. Ai during his detention and was himself arrested in June as part of a broader push in China to punish even moderate reformers.他本来可以把中国人权律师浦志强的肖像加进去,在艾未未被拘禁期间,浦志强曾是他的律师。今年6月,浦志强亦遭到逮捕,这是中国打击较为温和改革者的广泛行动的一部分。“I did not put him in ‘Trace,’ because I believed he would be released right away,” Mr. Ai wrote. “Time has proven that I was wrong. He has committed no crime and is still in jail. It is a massive shame that an advocate with such a strong voice has been completely silenced.”“我没有把他加入‘Trace’,是因为我相信届时他应该已经被释放了,”艾未未写道,“时间明我是错的。他并没有犯任何罪,现在还被关在监狱。一个这样强大的声音被彻底噤声,这真是巨大的耻辱。” /201410/332592It was once thought that only time could mend a broken heart, but now scientists think popping a couple of aspirin might be the best way to get over a break-up.分手了,我们原认为只有时间才能治愈那颗破碎的心。可是现在有科学家提出,吃上几片阿司匹林或许才是走出失恋的最好方法。Psychology Professor Water Mischel, of Columbia University, believes that the psychological pain of ending a relationship is similar to physical pain, and should be treated like any other injury.哥伦比亚大学心理学教授沃特?米歇尔认为结束一段恋情所造成的心理疼痛感和身体上的疼痛感类似,所以治疗失恋的痛苦也应该像治疗其他身体伤痛一样。He also believes that discussing feelings with friends will only increase depression and advises keeping brooding to a minimum.除此之外,他还表示失恋后跟朋友们讨论这种痛苦的感觉只会让自己更郁闷,他建议应尽可能减少回味痛苦的次数。“When we speak about rejection experiences in terms of physical pain, it is not just a metaphor – the broken heart and emotional pain really do hurt in a physical way,; he said.米歇尔教授说,“当我们用身体上的疼痛来描述受挫的感情时,这不止是一种比喻而已,事实上情伤确实会带来身体上的痛感。”。“When you look at a picture of the one who broke your heart, you experience a pain in a similar area of the brain which is activated when you burn your arm.“当你看着那个让你心碎之人的照片时,你感受到的痛感和手臂烧伤时产生的痛感来自大脑的同一个区域。”;‘Take two aspirins and call me in the morning’ would be a cold-hearted response to a friend’s late-night report of fresh heartbreak, but it has a solid basis in the research.”“如果朋友深夜打电话找你倾诉自己分手后的心碎感觉,你可以让他/她先吃两片阿司匹林,然后说‘明早再打给我’。这看起来似乎很冷血,但这么做确实是有着坚实的研究依据。”Previous studies have shown that people experience feelings of romantic rejection in the same way that they experience physical pain.之前有研究表明,人在经历感情挫折时的感觉与经历外在伤痛时的感觉一致。Research subjects given a simple non-prescription painkiller, like aspirin or ibuprofen, were shown to handle feelings of rejection better than those given a placebo.实验中,那些吃了止痛药(如阿司匹林或布洛芬)的试验对象处理感情挫折的能力会比那些吃了安慰剂(不含任何药物成分的药片)的人更胜一筹。And while most people recount break-ups and other painful experiences by recalling events and speaking to friends, Prof Mischel believes that it is important to view heartbreak from a distance.另外,大多数人在想起分手和其他一些痛苦的事情时都会去仔细回忆那些经历并且找朋友倾诉。而米歇尔教授认为在想起这些令人心碎的事情时还是不要太详细为好。“Common wisdom suggests that if we thoroughly revisit our negative experiences to try to understand why they happened, we’ll eventually be able to move on,” he said.他说,“通常的观念都认为人应当充分回想自身的负面经历,并从中找出原因,最终才能继续向前迈进。”“However, new research is showing that some people only get worse by continuing to brood and ruminate.“不过,最新的研究显示,有些人在反复回想之后,反而变得更糟了。”“Each time they recount the experience to themselves, their friends or their therapist, they only become more depressed. Self-distancing, in contrast, allows them to get a more objective view, without reactivating their pain, and helps them get past the experience.”“在他们每次对自己、自己的朋友或者医生回忆起这些经历时,都只会让自己变得更抑郁而已。与之相比,‘自我疏远’却可以使他们态度变得更客观,既不会揭心里的伤疤,还能帮他们摆脱这些经历。” /201410/333734

Thea (12) is Norway’s first child bride. The young girl will walk down the aisle on Saturday October 11, to meet her 37 years old husband to be. Being Norway’s first official child wedding, the event has sparked an outcry of reactions from the public.十二岁的西娅是挪威第一位儿童新娘。在10月11日,周六,她和自己37岁的未婚夫一起走上了红毯。这是挪威第一桩官方认可的儿童婚姻,这一事件激起了公众的极大反响。“Hey! My name is Thea and I’m 12 years old. I am getting married in one month!”.“嗨,我的名字叫西娅。我今年12岁。我将在一个月之后结婚!”This is how Thea has introduced her upcoming journey and major life event of soon being a child bride in Norway. Using this blog she will tell her story and express how she believes her experience of marriage will be.西娅用这句话介绍自己,向公众介绍自己即将成为挪威的儿童新娘,经历这一人生大事,展开人生新旅程。Thea’s wedding blog has become Norway’s most blog during the course of one day. It instantly provoked reactions where people immediately contacted the police and childwelfare in order to stop the upcoming wedding.仅在一天之内,西娅的婚礼客就成为了挪威最热门的客。它立刻及其了人们的强烈反响,有人立刻联系了警方和儿童福利机构,希望能够阻止这场即将到来的婚礼。Thousands of people debated the subject on social media as well. The aim is to engage the population to take immediate action and stop the wedding before Thea has planned to tell Geir “I do”.同时,还有成千上万的人在社交网络上就此事争论不休。人们想方设法呼吁群众,想采取紧急措施,以便在西娅对盖尔说出“我愿意”之前阻止这场婚礼。The shocking blog is leading up to the fictional couple’s wedding date, October 11, which coincides with the UN’s International Day of the Girl Child.这一震惊世人的客文章中写到,二人的“婚礼”将在10月11日举行。而这一天,正好是联合国设立的估计女童日。39,000 girls are robbed of their childhood every day.每天都有3万9千名女孩被剥夺了她们的童年。We believe that provocation is a powerful tool in order to demonstrate a reality that truly is very provoking. We hope people will mobilize against child marriage by being girl sponsors, so that most of the 39,000 girls facing Thea’s situation every day can escape their brutal fate.我们相信这场抗议将成为有力的武器,揭示出令人扼腕抗争的真相。我们希望人们资助这些女孩,参与抵制儿童婚姻的活动,这样以来,每天那些和西娅面临着同样处境的3万9千名儿童就能逃脱她们悲惨的命运了。 /201410/338808

Hitler#39;s secret addiction to crystal meth:The Fuhrer took #39;Breaking Bad#39; drug before ranting at Mussolini... and in hislast days in the bunker希特勒对冰毒的鲜为人知的嗜好Adolf Hitler was a regular user of crystalmeth–one of the most feared and addictive illegal substances on today#39;s blackmarket and the drug at the heart of the hit TV series Breaking Bad – researchhas shown.研究发现阿道夫希特勒经常食用冰毒。A 47-page wartime dossier compiled by American Military Intelligence reveals that Hitler, a notorious hypochondriac,took an astonishing 74 different medications including crystalmethamphetamines.《美国军事情报》发表的这份47页的战时卷宗显示作为忧郁症患者的希特勒用过74种不同的药物,其中就包括冰毒。Manufactured by the fictionalteacher-turned-drug dealer Walter White in Breaking Bad, the drug is prized by addicts for the feelings of euphoria it produces. But it was also valued by themilitary during the war as a drug which could help combat the effects offatigue.用冰毒可以产生精神愉悦的感觉。而且在战时,军队也会使用它来抵抗疲劳。The Fuhrer is believed to have taken crystal meth before a meeting with Mussolini in the summer of 1943, when heranted non-stop for two hours. And he had nine injections of a drug calledVitamultin, which contained meth-amphetamine, during his final days in hisbunker.据认为,1943年夏天时,希特勒在与墨索里尼会面前吸食了冰毒,随后连续不断的演讲了两个小时。而且在位于地下碉堡的最后日子里,他还九次注射了一种称为Vitamultin的药物,这种药物中就包含有冰毒。The dossier also debunks one of the most enduring legends about the Fuhrer – the claim that he lost a testicle when hewas injured at the Battle of the Somme. Morale-boosting ditty #39;Hitler has onlygot one ball#39; was popular during the Second World War and his admirer y Mitford suggested he #39;lacked something in the manly department#39;.这份卷宗还揭穿了有关希特勒的一个长久以来的传说——说希特勒在索姆河战役中受伤而失去了一个睾丸。振奋士气的小调《希特勒只有一个睾丸》在二战期间非常流行,他的爱慕者米特福德说希特勒“缺乏男子气概的某些东西”。But the American records, which feature ina Channel 4 documentary, show the dictator was not monorchid (the medical termfor being born with one testicle). They also shoot down claims that Hitler wasa predatory homosexual who massacred 150 supporters to hide his secret.但是第四频道纪录片中播出的这份美国卷宗显示这名独裁者并非只有一个睾丸。也否认了希特勒是谋杀了150多名持者以掩盖秘密的肉食性同性恋。An entry written in November 1945, based on the Fuhrer#39;s medical records andinterviews with doctors who treated him, including his physician Dr Theodor Morell, states: #39;He was neither a pervert nor a homosexual. His sexual organs showed no indication of abnormality.#39;其中有一个写于1945年11月的一个条目,该条目基于希特勒的医疗记录及对治疗过他的医生的采访,包括他的私人医生Theodor Morell士,条目中写道:“他既不是性欲反常者也不是同性恋。他的性器官没有半点畸形。”Hitler fell under the spell of Dr Morell, who ran a clinic in Berlin, in 1936.He gave him medication called Mutaflor to cure stomach cramps, and Hitler became a devotee. Morell then prescribed the barbiturate Brom-Nervacit, them orphine-based drug Eukodal, bulls#39; semen, to give him a test osterone boost,and Pervitin, a pill containing crystal meth.1936年,希特勒为Theodor Morell士所折,他当时在柏林开了一家诊所。他给希特勒开了叫做Mutaflor的药以治疗他的腹部绞痛,随后希特勒就成了他的信徒。Morell后来又给他开了巴比妥类药物Brom-Nervacit,以及以吗啡为基础的Eukodal,还有公牛的,以促进其睾丸素的增加,还给他开了一种包含bingdu的药品,叫做Pervitin。Morell also gave him two artificial stimulants, Coramine and Cardiazol. To counteract the effect of the stimulants, Morell gave Hitler more sedatives. Bythe end of 1943, the Fuhrer was dependent on a destructive mix of uppers anddowners.他还给他开了两种人造兴奋剂,Coramine和 Cardiazol。为了中和这两种药物的效果,他又给他开了更多的镇定剂。到1943年底为止,希特勒就一直依赖于兴奋剂和镇定剂的用,相当具有破坏性。Bill Panagopoulos, an American collector who discovered the dossier, said: #39;Morell was a quack and a fraud and a snakeoil salesman.#39;Bill Panagopoulos是发现这份卷宗的美国收藏家,他说:“Morell就是个庸医和骗人的商人。”#39;He should not have been practising medicine anywhere outside a veterinary clinic.#39;“他就适合当兽医。” /201410/335596

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