楼主:百家热点 时间:2018年01月23日 17:28:01 点击:0 回复:0
Think of the last time a song really moved you, or meant something to you. Listening to and playing music stimulates many different sections of the brain, affecting us physically as well. Why are we as humans so connected to music?Making music is one of our most basic instincts. There's a reason we refer to music as the "universal language"; there has been no known human culture without music. Dancing and music came before agriculture, and possibly even before language. Bone flutes were found in Europe dating back 53,000 years ago. The head of the Biomusic program at the National Academy of the Sciences, Patricia Gray, and her colleagues comment, "The fact that whale and human music have so much in common even though our evolutionary paths have not intersected for 60 million years suggests that music may predate humans-that rather than being the inventors of music, we are latecomers to the musical scene." (Leutwyler)Music and ChildhoodWe begin life being affected by music; babies first begin to respond to music while still in the womb. Whether or not it's true, everyone has heard that playing classical music for your baby supposedly helps him or her become smarter. A study done in the ed Kingdom concluded that children are able to recognize and even prefer music that they had heard while in the womb up to three months before birth. Although the genera of music made no difference, the babies who were exposed to songs with a faster tempo showed a stronger preference for that song than those who had heard something slower. ("Babies Remember Music Heard in the Womb") Researchers have also found that the playing of soft background music or a mother's humming actually helps premature babies. Those who are subjected to the music tend to gain weight faster and are able to leave hospitals earlier than those who aren't. (Cromie, "Music on the Brain")However, the study in the UK uncovered no links between babies listening to music and increased intelligence or brain development. Another experiment at the University of California at Irvine compared the puzzle-solving abilities of 3-year-olds who were given piano lessons with the ability of others who sang, used computers, or did nothing. The children studying piano were better at the puzzles. Also, high school students with a musical background seem to do better on their SATs. (Cromie, "How Your Brain Listens to Music") Whether it's natural intelligence that helps the children excel in both music and math, or the music that helps develop other areas, you can't deny the benefits of a musical background.On the other end of the spectrum, it's possible that some music and/or lyrics could be bad for children and adolescents. The lyrics of today's popular music are increasingly explicit. A study on mass media and adolescents showed that a group of "14- to 16-year olds in 10 different southeastern cities showed that they listened to music an average of 40 hours per week." ("Impact of Music Lyrics...") Obviously, the music they are listening to plays a large part in their lives, especially influencing self-identity. So any bad influences in the music would have a very direct effect on the adolescent.Several other experiments mentioned in the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement on the "Impact of Music Lyrics and Music Videos on Children and Youth" supported this idea. One study from Sweden found that children who developed a preference to rock music were more likely to be influenced by their peers than by their parents. Others showed links between a predilection for heavy metal and detrimental behaviors, including taking drugs, suicide risk, alienation, and other risk-taking habits. The AAP doesn't support the idea of censorship, but strongly encourages parents to monitor what their children are listening to. We have to ask, should we as a society look at the results of these effects on adolescents and call for regulation in the music industry?Music and the MindWilliam J. Cromie, writer for the Harvard Gazette, explains how we our brain listens to music. "Your inner ear contains a spiral sheet that the sounds of music pluck like a guitar string. This plucking triggers the firing of brain cells that make up the hearing parts of your brain. At the highest station, the auditory cortex, just above your ears, these different firing cells create the conscious experience of music. Different patterns...excite other cells, and these associate the sound of music with feelings, thoughts, and past experiences." (Cromie, "How Your Brain Listens to Music") This is just a generalized statement; the actual processes that go on are very complicated, and we don't really know all that much about them.No single portion of the brain seems completely dedicated to our perception of music. The right side of the brain is generally associated with music and the arts, but studies done on people who have suffered brain damage show that both the right and left side play a part in musical perception. While the right side is crucial for pitch, melody, timbre, and harmony, the left side takes care of changes in intensity and frequency. Both sides need to be working together in order to correctly understand rhythm. Also, sections of the brain relating to music affect other things. For example, the part of the brain having to do with perfect pitch additionally effects speech perception. (Cromie, "Music on the Brain") Interestingly, parts of your motor system react when you are simply thinking about a rhythm, even when you're not moving.Damage to the temporal lobes, which are part of the cerebrum and lie at the sides of the brain, can cause a disorder referred to as Amusia. People may have trouble with rhythms, recognizing melodies, singing, or playing an instrument. Sometimes the damage can cause little or no problems with hearing speech or other sounds; just music.Carol Krumhansl of Cornell University found that different types of music directly trigger different emotions. While happiness causes you to breathe faster, sadness causes a rise in blood pressure and temperature and a slower pulse. Faster music played in a major key caused the same physical reactions associated with happiness, and slower music played in a minor key resulted in those associated with sadness. (Leutwyler) This also evokes the question of whether or not minor keys naturally sound "bad" or undesirable to everyone, or if it's simply what we've been socialized to think through the music we're used to in our particular cultures.Music and IntelligenceMusic is often used as a learning tool. If only we could memorize notes for a test as easily as we memorize popular songs on the radio! Music with a tempo of around 60 beats-per-minute can activates both the left and right sides of the brain, which assists in processing more information at once. Singing and playing an instrument also has this effect.Listening to music that induces relaxation, such as "Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major," before taking a test has been proven to temporarily enhance IQ and improve scores. This has since been named "The Mozart Effect." However, the effects of the music seemed to last only 10 to 15 minutes. The original experiment, published in 1993, has been under scrutiny ever since. Other researchers have tried to repeat similar tests, but have not gotten such positive results. After attempting a complete re-do of the first Mozart Effect test, scientists at Appalachian State University stated, "...there is little evidence to support basing intellectual intervention on the existence of the Mozart effect." (qtd. in Chudler)Dr. George Lozanov, a psychologist from Bulgaria, used classical music at about 60 beats per minute to devise a better way of learning a foreign language. Using this method, students "could learn up to one half of the vocabulary and phrases for the whole school term (which amounts to almost 1,000 words or phrases) in one day." (O'Donnell) The student's retention rate was an incredible 92%, and he managed to prove that entirelanguages could be learned fairly well within thirty days with this approach!A separate study performed in Texas tested the effect of music on vocabulary memorization among graduate students. The students were divided into three groups; two groups studied with "Water Music" by Handel playing in the background, one being asked to imagine the words while studying, the other group not. The third group was a control and wasn't asked to do anything. Groups 1 and 2 had consistently better test scores than group 3, and group 1 did better than group 2. (O'Donnell) /200810/54149美国《》杂志创刊于1953年。1953年12月《》杂志出版第一期,为月刊,主要面向广大男性读者。关于美国人的文化,我们专门向上海外教网的外教Ashley请教了以下问题:1、How widely is Playboy known is the U.S? 《》在美国有多流行?几乎所有的美国人都知道《》杂志,不论男女,它是一本月刊(Monthly)。2、Is Playboy a porn magazine? 《》杂志算色情杂志吗?Does Playboy contain lots of porn pictures and words? 《》杂志中是否充斥着许多色情的图片和文字?是的,我想《》应该算是色情杂志,其中有许多比较裸露的(naked)的图片。3、Is there any restriction for the sale of Playboy? (such as not to kids, etc.)销售《》是否有一些限制呢?(比如不允许卖给孩子等等。)是的,是有一些限制的,将《》卖给18岁以下的孩子在美国将被视为非法的。就像卖香烟一样,如果您看上去像个孩子,您会被要求出示您的身份(ID)以明您可以购买该杂志,否则您是无法买到的。当然也有一些小贩为了利益照样将《》卖给一些未成年人,这种现象在许多国家都存在。4、Is Playboy more expensive than any other magazines?《》要比其他的杂志贵一些吗?是的,《》显得要贵一些。美国大部分的月刊的内页在150-250,价格约2-3.5美元。5、 Is there another magazine in the US serving in the same way as Playboy? 在美国还有和《》类似的杂志吗?有的比如阁楼风情杂志。 /201002/96088我给你开些抗压力的药。无论何时只要你的电话响的时候,给每一个耳朵贴一片。全国同胞们,同志们,朋友们:Fellow countrymen, comrades and friends,今天,我们隆重集会,庆祝中华人民共和国成立60周年。在这个喜庆而又庄严的时刻,全国各族人民都为伟大祖国的发展进步感到无比自豪,都对实现中华民族伟大复兴的光明前景充满信心。Today, we hold a grand celebration to mark the 60th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. At this cheerful and solemn moment, people from all over the country's ethnic groups are extremely proud of our great nation's development and progress and are confident of the Chinese nation's bright prospect on the road to revival.【重点语法词汇】重点句型:At this cheerful and solemn moment, people from all over the country's ethnic groups are extremely proud of our great nation's development and progress and are confident of the Chinese nation's bright prospect on the road to revival.:本句的意思为“在这个喜庆而又庄严的时刻,全国各族人民都为伟大祖国的发展进步感到无比自豪,都对实现中华民族伟大复兴的光明前景充满信心。”结构上,本句是一个简单句,其中,At this cheerful and solemn moment为时间状语,people from all over the country's ethnic groups 为主语,are extremely proud of和and are confident of 为并列谓语,our great nation's development and progress 和 the Chinese nation's bright prospect on the road to revival分别为并列谓语proud o和confident of 的宾语。 /200910/86516Over the last year I have lots of material on self-improvement and success. One common theme I found in almost everything I was an emphasis on gratitude. In an effort to increase gratitude in my life, I have listed the top 5 things that have been given to me for nothing:去年我看过很多关于自我成长和成功的材料,我发现几乎所有材料都有一个共同点,那就是强调感恩。为了增强我的感恩之心,我找出了五个对我来讲最重要的不劳所获。1. My CarWhen my Gramma bought a new car, she sold her 1997 Ford Tauras to me for . A white Tauras isn’t exactly the coolest car on the block, but I have driven it for 7 years with minimal maintenance costs. After 14 years and 100,000+ miles, it still gets me where I need to go.我的车我奶奶买新车的时候,把她的1997年产福特金牛座轿车以一美元卖给了我。白色的金牛座虽然并不是我们那个街区最酷的一辆车,但它为我效力了七年,也没花多少维护费用。现如今在它役14年、跑了10万英里路之后,仍然可以带我去任何我想去的地方。2. My EducationI was fortunate enough to have great parents who decided at a young age to save money for my education. I graduated from Purdue University in 2009 with no student loans and 放飞梦想,没有不可能I have a band in Beijing, Woodie Alan. The moniker is a joke, reflecting my name and that of my Chinese partner, Woodie Wu, but the group is not. In fact, much to my surprise, I am fronting a pretty happening little band.I never could have pulled this off back home. I owe my success as a gigging musician, however far it goes, to being an expat. Moving here and re-establishing my identity has allowed me to redefine myself, casting off old insecurities and pursuing a reality I always envisioned but didn't quite know how to achieve. In this, I am not alone.Many people find that expat life allows them to liberate themselves from the accumulated reputation and history that can come to define you. Everyone plays an established role with his or her families and old friends, and moving somewhere new gives you an opportunity to reboot. Expats may also be more willing to give something new a try; after all if you've traded Milwaukee for Beijing, why not try your hand at fronting a band, or running a bar, or riding a motorcycle?Woodie Alan plays regularly at The Stone Boat, inside Ritan Park, within one of the city's Embassy districts. The little bar is actually a stone boat and sits on a lake with a small stage extending over the water and tables sp along the banks, a surprisingly serene, pastoral setting right in the middle of downtown Beijing.American expat Jonathan Ansfield and his wife run the Stone Boat. Jonathan is a journalist and blogger, contributing to Newsweek and other publications and Web sites. Now he is also a bar proprietor and a small-scale Beijing music impresario, booking performers for free shows three nights a week during the warmer months.'It's an out of body experience -- certainly nothing I ever did or would have done had I stayed in America,' he says. 'I've always loved music and spent a lot of time going to clubs and seeing bands in college, but I can't see how I ever would have ended up booking bands had I stayed in the U.S. But I've been into the Beijing music scene since I got here [over 10 years ago] so it's something I really enjoy.'It's manifestly easier to realize some goals here than it would be in the U.S. American Jonathan Anderson, now an analyst for the investment bank UBS, fronted blues bands in Moscow in the early '90s and in Beijing at the end of that decade. In this city he co-founded the Rhythm Dogs with some of the city's finest musicians, including key members of the Cui Jian Band, China's first significant rockers.'I'm a mediocre harmonica player and a worse guitarist but I had my pick of incredible musicians,' says Mr. Anderson. 'With some vision, drive and hard work, anything was possible. It was like living out a fantasy. The quality of the guys I played with was head and shoulders above what I could have rated at home. It was like walking in and gigging with Led Zeppelin and that just doesn't happen in a more developed market.'Kaiser Kuo has a similar story. He moved to Beijing in 1988, formed the hard rock band Tang Dynasty in 1989, put out an album in 1990 and was touring all over the country by 1991. After returning to the University of Arizona to pursue a doctorate in East Asian Studies, Mr. Kuo found himself daydreaming about Chinese rock stardom and eventually quit school to return to Beijing. He rejoined Tang Dynasty and was soon performing in 35,000-seat stadiums. Now overseeing digital strategy for Ogilvy and Mather's Beijing office, Mr. Kuo still performs regularly with his band Chunqiu.'I can sit in a guitar store in the U.S. and hear 10 guys who smoke me in just an hour but here I am,' says Mr. Kuo. 'For me, this could only have happened in China.' /200803/32587 paid by me towards my tuition. They also paid my rent all four years. The only thing I had to do was graduate on time. I know that most people don’t get an amazing deal like this and for that I am grateful.我的教育我非常幸运有一对伟大的父母,他们在我很小的时候就开始为我的教育存钱。到2009年我从普渡大学毕业的时候,从未自己付过一分学费,却也没有任何学生贷款。我的父母甚至还为我付了四年的房租,而我所要做的就是按时毕业而已。我知道很多人没有像我这样的好运,为此我心怀感激。3. My ComputerWhen I graduated from High School in 2005, my parents threw a graduation party for me. I netted about ,000 in cash gifts and used it to buy a brand new laptop.In 2008, the laptop was stolen when our house was robbed. Good thing my parents had home owners insurance. The laptop was covered for 00 which I used to buy a new computer that I still use to this very day.我的电脑2005年我高中毕业的时候,父母为我办了一场毕业欢庆会。庆祝会上我收到了大概2000元的礼金,我用这笔钱买了一台新的笔记本电脑。2008年我们家失窃的时候我的笔记本也被盗了。不过好消息是我的父母购买了家财险,我的笔记本得到了1200元的赔偿。我又用这笔钱买了一台新电脑,并且使用至今。 /201103/127576

Is it really possible for anyone to live happily to 100? The good news is that your body was designed to be 100 - you just have to get out of the way.Getting out of the way means taking an honest look at the habits and lifestyle you are living with today. Most of us have developed habits that limit our true health potential.But don't let these bad habits of the past discourage you - it is never too late to make new choices. What you did in the past can be changed, and your body will respond in kind. What matters is what you do from this moment forward.Top 5 Daily Habits for Your LongevityIt takes 14 to 21 days of repetitive behavior to form a new pattern in your brain. Once the pattern is formed, it becomes an automatic behavioral response. As you develop new healthy habits, they will begin to replace bad habits. These healthy lifelong habits are adapted straight from the time-tested traditions practiced by centenarians all around the world, and I can say with certainty that they will transform and rejuvenate you!Eat five small meals a day.In the Western culture, meals are taken three times a day, but it is much better to eat five smaller meals. When you eat smaller portions five times a day, you deliver a steady stream of nutrients, blood sugar, and energy to your body throughout the day. Additionally, eating this way is less taxing on the digestive and metabolic systems and also reduces your risk of heart disease.Climb the stairs instead of using elevators.The health benefits of a daily exercise program cannot be stressed enough. Regular exercise can help promote physiological well-being, strengthen the immune system, maintain joint mobility, increase energy - and the list goes on. Look for opportunities all through your day to work in physical activity. Power-walk, run, or ride your bike instead of driving. Begin a daily tai chi practice. Join a gym and actually go! Practice safely and watch your health results pile up.Laugh it up!We know from research that laughter and joy boost immune functions, especially the production of the natural killer cells that help protect the body from illness and cancer. Laughter also increases the release of endorphins, compounds that give you a sense of well-being, in your brain. Without a doubt, joyful people live longer and healthier lives.Drink 8 glasses of water every day.Water is essential for all healthy body functions. Centenarians from around the globe cite their native water as the source of their health and longevity - and the scientists agree with them. What they all have in common is pure water sources located far from any city, free from chemicals and toxins.Choose filtered water; the best filtration processes are the ones that use activated charcoal, which removes the impurities but leaves the water-soluble minerals. Also, do not store water in plastic containers because the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can leach into the water.Unwind with meditation.Stress is the root cause of most of the diseases that shorten our life span. In our modern society stress will continue to increase - unless you find techniques to manage it. Meditation is the best way to release tension and revitalize your being. It teaches you to breath properly, which is critical for eliminating up to 70% of your body's toxins and wastes. It also quiets your mind, lowers your stress hormones, and teaches self-discipline, which is a necessary attribute to achieving your health and longevity goals.Try this beginning meditation:Sit comfortably on a chair or the floor. Breathe naturally and close your eyes. Each time a thought appears, put it inside a balloon and let it fly up into the sky and disappear. Do this until the thoughts are exhausted. After a bit, your body will feel very light, and your mind will become still. The first few times it may take a while, but it will get easier and faster with practice.I hope you use these healthy habits for years to come! I invite you to visit often and share your own personal health and longevity tips with me.May you live long, live strong, and live happy!-Dr. Mao /200809/48443


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