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  • High-speed rail in China中国高铁Tracking slower追踪高铁减速A showcase line, but throttling back 一条示范航线,但是开始缩水Jun 30th 2011 | SHANGHAI | from the print edition THE heart of China’s national railway policy has been the pursuit of speed. And having built the world’s longest high-speed network from scratch, this week the country proudly launched its showcase project, the 1,318km (820-mile) Beijing-Shanghai line. Running at speeds of over 300km an hour, the sleek electric train cuts the travel time between China’s two most important cities by nearly half, to four hours and 48 minutes.中国国有铁路政策的核心就是追求高速。并且白手起家建起了世界上最长的高速铁路网,这周中国骄傲的宣布,这条起示范作用的的全长1318km(820英里)的京沪高铁开始运行。运行时速达到300km,这辆流线型的电车把中国最重要的两个城市的交通时间缩短了将近一半,降至4小时48分钟。The service is designed as a rival to air travel. Indeed, at Beijing South station, the ultra-modern facility resembles an airport. The other terminus, meanwhile, actually is at Shanghai’s domestic airport. But that means travellers lose the benefit of a downtown arrival, often touted as an advantage of trains. Even on intermediate stops, stations are far from urban centres.这条铁路务是为和航空竞争而设计的。在北京南站,这个超现代化的车站有点像飞机场。同时,另一个终点站实际上是在上海国内机场。这就意味着乘客失去了在市区下车的便利,这常常是用来夸耀的火车的优势。甚至在中间的站点,车站也离着市中心很远。201107/146097
  • South Korea, EU Enter 'Final' Trade Deal Negotiations韩国欧盟进入自贸谈判最后阶段 South Korea and the European Union have started what they call their final round of talks in efforts to agree on a trade liberalization deal. The deal still faces serious opposition from South Korean farmers, and may require fine tuning on opening up the Korean auto market. 韩国和欧盟开始就自由贸易协议达成一致举行他们所谓的最后一轮谈判。这项协议仍然遇到韩国农民的强烈反对,而且可能在开放韩国汽车市场问题上也需要做很多工作。South Korean Chief Trade Negotiator Lee Hye-min says he and his European Union counterpart Ignacio Garcia Bercero hope to conclude negotiations on a free trade deal this week. 韩国首席贸易谈判代表李惠民表示,他跟欧盟首席贸易谈判代表伯塞罗都希望这个星期能结束有关自由贸易协议的谈判。"As a result of these efforts, now we are about to finishing our long journey ... Our deal has far reached many fields for the whole economy. Both Korean and European manufactures will benefit," he said. 李惠民说:“由于这些努力,我们现在即将结束我们的漫长旅途。我们的协议涉及到整个经济的许多领域。韩国和欧盟的制造业都会受益。”The two sides have held seven previous rounds of talks that began nearly two years ago. Signing and implementing a deal would remove tariffs and make it much easier to buy and sell goods and services to each other. By at least one estimate the deal stands to add about billion to South Korea's economy. 韩国跟欧盟两年前开始举行自由贸易协议谈判,到现在为止已经 举行了七轮谈判。签署并实施贸易协议就会取消关税,使得双方之间的商品和劳务进出口更加便利。至少有一项估计认为,这项自由贸易协议将使韩国经济增加大约110亿美元。Opening the automotive and agricultural markets have been sticking points in previous sessions. Both sides view those markets as sensitive and politically difficult to stop protecting. 开放汽车市场和农业市场一直成为以往几轮谈判的症结所在。韩国和欧盟都认为上述两个市场非常敏感,要想停止保护,从政治角度很难做到。South Korean farmers held protests in Seoul to condemn the deal, shouting that the FTA negotiations are killing Korean farmers. Agriculture, especially rice farming, is seen in South Korea as a matter of both food security and cultural heritage. Deals to allow foreign agriculture products in to the country have sparked emotional and occasionally violent demonstrations in the past. 韩国农民在首尔举行抗议,谴责自由贸易协议,并大声说,自由贸易协议谈判正在毁灭韩国农民。农业,特别是耕种稻米,在韩国被看作是食品安全和传统文化的问题。有关允许外国农产品进入韩国的协议曾经在这个国家引发了情绪激昂的抗议。有时甚至发生暴力示威。If this week's negotiations are successful, South Korean officials say they hope to publicly declare the deal at next month's summit of advanced industrial nations in London.  韩国官员表示,假如这个星期的谈判取得成功,他们准备下个月在伦敦举行的发达工业国家首脑会议上宣布这项协议。South Korea signed a free trade deal with the ed States in June of 2007. But serious doubts remain as to whether it will be ratified. Left-leaning South Korean politicians have used sit-ins and civil disobedience to block the National Assembly in Seoul from advancing the vote process on the deal.  韩国和美国在2007年6月签署了自由贸易协议。不过,这项协议是否会得到批准还值得怀疑。韩国左翼政界人士使用静坐和反抗等方式阻止国会推动这一协议的表决程序。In the ed States, senior Democratic party leaders have expressed reservations about the deal's terms on automobile trade. Earlier this month, U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk said in a confirmation he thought the U.S.-South Korea deal "just is not fair." 在美国,资深民主党领导人对美韩自由贸易协议中有关汽车贸易的条款持保留态度。这个月早些时候,美国贸易代表柯克在确认他提名的听会上表示,他认为美韩自由贸易协议“根本就是不公平的”。03/65328
  • New fiction新小说Somali son索马里之子A voice from Africa来自非洲的声音Sep 17th 2011 | from the print editionCrossbones. By Nuruddin Farah. Riverhead; 389 pages; .95. Buy from Amazon.com《死亡髅骷》;努鲁德因#8226;法拉著;河之源出版社;389页;27.95美元;请到Amazon.com购买NURUDDIN FARAH went into self- imposed exile from his native Somalia in 1976, during the 22-year dictatorship of Mohamed Siad Barre. He now lives in Cape Town and Minnesota and writes in English. Yet the ten novels that have earned him recognition as a sophisticated voice in modern fiction—and one of Africa’s most important writers—are all set in Somalia. They combine an intimate dissection of power within the family with a strong dose of scepticism about the machinations of national and global power.穆罕默德·西亚德·巴雷在巴西的独裁统治持续了22年,此间的1976年努鲁德因#8226;法拉自我放逐,离开祖国索马里。法拉现在住在开普敦和明尼苏达,并用英语写作。然而他的10本小说背景都设在索马里,这10本小说让他赢得了人们的承认,他被看作是现代小说中不落俗套的声音,也被尊为非洲最重要的小说家之一。这些小说深入剖析了家庭内的权力,并结合了对国内和势力和国际势力阴谋的强烈怀疑。In his third and latest trilogy, “Past Imperfect”, Mr Farah proves a penetrating interpreter of the chaos that ensued when Siad Barre was ousted by warlords in 1991. In the concluding novel, “Crossbones”, which has just been published in America, a Somali-American professor named Jeebleh goes back to the capital, Mogadishu. A Dante expert, Jeebleh had first returned to his homeland in the mid-1990s after 20 years abroad—just as the author did—to find rival strongmen jostling in the Italianate city’s infernal ruins, a scene that was described in the trilogy’s opening volume, “Links” (2004). Ten years on, he finds white-robed men with beards and whips imposing order. These Taliban-inspired “religionists”, as Mr Farah calls them, had aly made an appearance in the second book, “Knots” (2007), foisting “body tents” on women. These female targets include Cambara, an actress and one of the author’s many robust heroines, who has returned from exile in Toronto to reclaim her family home from its squatting warlords.在他第三部也是最新一部的三部曲《过去不完善》中,法拉尖刻地直现了1991年西亚德#8226;巴雷被军队将领推翻时索马里随之陷入的混乱。三部曲的最后一部《死亡髅骷》刚在美国出版,书中索马里籍的美国教授吉伯莱回到了首都加迪沙。吉伯莱是研究但丁的专家,在海外漂泊20年后,他曾在20世纪90年代中期首次返回自己的祖国(刚好与作者雷同),发现敌对的铁碗人物们在意大利风格的城市废墟中彼此冲撞,犹如置身地狱一般,这个场景在三部曲的首部《纽带》(2004)里描述过。十年后的再次归来,他发现白袍男子手拿芒刺和鞭子强迫人们听命。这些受塔利班启发的“宗教分子”,法拉这么称呼他们,已经在第二部《结》(2007年)一书中露过面了,他们把“身体帐篷”强加给妇女。这些女性标靶包括女演员卡姆芭拉,她是作者笔下许多精力充沛的女主人公之一,流亡在多伦多的她返回索马里,想把她家住宅从霸占它的军队将领手中收回来。201109/155611
  • Not swatted yet消灭疟疾任重道远A new vaccine is one step towards a distant goal一种新疫苗让人类离消灭疟疾更近了一步MAN has vanquished only one disease, smallpox. In 2007 Bill Gates set out to eradicate another, malaria. The World Health Organisation (WHO) was soon rallying its troops to the cause and a flood of money followed. 2m went to research in alone. This week the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation trumpeted another announcement: results from a phase III trial (the more extensive process of testing drugs in people) of a malaria vaccine called RTS,S. This is the world’s most advanced vaccine for malaria and the results, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, were encouraging.到目前为止人类只消灭了天花这一种疾病。2007年,比尔#8226;盖茨宣布开始着手消灭另一种疾病即疟疾。世界卫生组织迅速召集队伍致力于这项事业,并在随后投入大量资金,年仅在研究上就投入了6.12亿美元。本周,“比尔和梅琳达#8226;盖茨基金会”发表了另一个声明,内容是世界上对抗疟疾最先进的疫苗RTS,S的第三试验阶段(在人群中广泛使用药物并测量反应)的结果,发表于《新英格兰医学杂志》上的结果振奋人心。It is an important step in combating a disease that still kills more than 700,000 people a year and debilitates millions more. But it is also a reminder of how much work remains to be done.每年因疟疾致死的人有700000人,致残的有 数百万人,这个试验结果是战胜这一疾病的重大进步。但是它也提醒人们还有多少任务尚未完成。Mr Gates is only malaria’s latest adversary. The parasite has plagued man for millennia. Chinese texts from 2700 describe plants to treat its fevers. More recently, in 1955, the WHO embarked on its first malaria-eradication effort. But transmission rates in Africa seemed intractable. After 14 years the WHO gave up. The last time the world tried to eliminate malaria, some scientists lament, the world eliminated malariologists.疟疾祸害人类千年,盖茨先生最近一个反抗它的对手。公元前2700年中国的文字资料就记载着一些植物能治疗由疟疾引起的发烧的。再往离现在近的时间看,世界卫生组织在1955年展开首次消灭疟疾的行动。但是在非洲,遏制疟疾的传播率似乎非常棘手。14年之后,世卫放弃了。有些科学家慨叹,上一次世界本来试图消灭疟疾,结果被消灭的是疟疾学家。The new wave of enthusiasm came with the founding of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership in 1998 (to co-ordinate planning), the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative in 1999 (with money from the Gates Foundation) and the ed Nations’ Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in 2002. This culminated in Mr Gates’s call to arms four years ago and has helped to lower the number of malaria deaths by 20% over the past decade.随着1998年“遏制疟疾伙伴关系”(共同测绘)、1999年“疟疾疫苗开发计划”(资金来自盖茨基金会)和2002年联合国全球治疗艾滋病肺结核和疟疾基金的建立,对抗疟疾的新一轮热潮出现了。四年后盖茨振臂一呼,在十年里疟疾死亡率降低了20%,推动抗疟疾的热潮达到顶峰。More progress will be difficult. The existing tools of insecticide-treated bed nets and treatment drugs require careful co-ordination and good health systems. Eliminating malaria in a stable country is dramatically easier than doing so in a turbulent one. Worryingly, these tools may become less effective. Parasites in South-East Asia, for example, seem to be developing resistance to artemisinin-based treatments. To achieve eradication—or anything close to it—new weapons are needed.要想获得更多进展非常困难。现有的带有杀虫剂蚊帐和药物治疗要求配合细致和良好的医疗系统。在一个政局稳定的国家消灭疟疾比在政局动荡的国家更容易。比如,东南亚的寄生虫似乎对基于青蒿素的治疗起了抗药性。要想消灭疟疾——或是向这个目标再迈进一大步—就得发展新武器。RTS,S, developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), a British pharmaceutical company, will help. The vaccine tries to stop one type of malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, before it has a chance to wreak havoc. A mosquito’s bite delivers malaria to the body. Travelling swiftly to the liver, the parasites hide, mature and multiply before staging a grand second act in the bloodstream, where they invade red blood cells, multiply again, and invade more cells. RTS,S combines a circumsporozoite protein, which exists on the parasite’s surface, with a protein from a hepatitis B vaccine. Together, these trigger an immune response which can fight off invading parasites before the second act.这个新武器就是由英国制药公司葛兰素史克公司(GlaxoSmithKline研制的RTS,S。该疫苗能停止疟疾寄生虫恶性疟原虫的活性,使它不能为非作歹。蚊子叮一口就会把疟疾传到人身上。它传播敏捷,在寄主身上隐藏起来、成熟、繁殖,然后在血液里进行第二个大的行动,入侵红细胞后再次繁殖,接着侵占更多细胞。RTS,S把存在于寄生虫表面的环子孢子蛋白和肝炎B型疫苗里的一种蛋白结合在一起。它们共同作用引发一种免疫反应,在第二次活动前就击退入侵的寄生虫。GSK tested the vaccine in 6,000 infants across sub-Saharan Africa. It reduced the risk of clinical malaria by 56% and severe malaria by 47%. This efficacy was “on the positive side of what we were expecting,” says Christian Loucq of the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative, GSK’s partner on RTS,S.葛兰素史克公司在撒哈拉以南非洲的6000名婴儿身上测试了这种疫苗。患临床疟疾的风险减少了56%,患严重疟疾的风险减少了47%。葛兰素史克公司在研制RTS.S的搭档“疟疾疫苗开发计划”的Christian Loucq说这种效力“是我们曾期待的积极一面”。However, more is to come. The trial examined children aged 5-17 months. Results for younger babies will follow. Still uncertain is how long the vaccine’s protection lasts. The first year that the vaccine might be used would be 2015, and that is if everything goes as planned. Even then, it is unclear how RTS,S might be deployed. Its price is uncertain and its power limited. “We realise that RTS,S is not the ultimate malaria vaccine,” says David Brandling-Bennett of the Gates Foundation. “But it will have some role. The challenge is figuring out what that role is.”然而,更多的试验紧随其后。上面提到的试验测试对象是5-17个月大的婴儿。随后会出炉年龄更小婴儿的结果。这种疫苗的保护能持续多久还不清楚。疫苗投入使用可能会从2015年开始,前提是如果一切按计划进行的话。即使到那时候,还不清楚RTS.S会怎样投放。价格不定,效力也是有限的。“我们认识到RTS.S并非是最好的疟疾疫苗,”盖茨基金会的大卫#8226;布兰丁-内特这样说,“但是它会起到一些作用。我们的挑战是研究出这种作用是什么。”Researchers are aly working on the next generation of vaccines. GSK hopes to induce a stronger immune response by combining RTS,S with a vaccine from Crucell, another drug firm. Scientists are also keen to develop vaccines that target different kinds of malaria parasites and in different ways—for example, in mosquitoes’ guts. All of this work requires further investment at a time when global health programmes must compete fiercely for cash. Mr Gates has helped to spur progress. Sustaining it is the next challenge.研究者已经开始从事下一代疫苗的开发。葛兰素史克公司希望使用RTS,S和另一家制药公司Crucell的一种疫苗的结合体来引起更强烈的免疫反应。科学家也努力研制针对不同种类疟疾寄生虫和不同感染途径——比如,在蚊子的内脏里——的疫苗。这些工作都需要继续投入资金,而现在正是全球医疗项目必须为资金激烈竞争的时候。盖茨先生已经为推动研究进步做出贡献。如何保持这种势头是下一个挑战。201110/159351
  • As helicopters loomed overhead and scores of police were on standby, the atmosphere was that of expectation. Russian news sources reported that thousands would take part in Saturday's commemoration of the death of Yegor Sviridov, 28, a Muscovite and Spartak football team supporter. For an hour people gathered with red carnations at the nearest Metro station before walking down to the place where Sviridov was killed on December 5.直升飞机在上空盘旋,几十名警察就地待命,气氛十分凝重。俄罗斯新闻来源报道说,数千人将会参加纪念斯维里多夫遇害的集会。28岁的俄罗斯人斯维里多夫是莫斯科斯巴达克队的足球迷。人们手持红色康乃馨在离斯维里多夫遇难地点最近的地铁站里聚集了一个小时,然后前往斯维里多夫12月5号遇难的地点。Most of those present were young nationalists and when asked why they were there, they said it was not because they knew Sviridov, but because he was Russian. One young man, Nikita told VOA he was there because he thought that the killing of a Russian was not acceptable.参加纪念活动的多数都是年轻的民族主义分子,当问到他们为什么来这里参加集会时,他们说并不是因为他们认识斯维里多夫,而是因为他们也是俄罗斯人。一个名叫尼吉塔的青年对美国之音说,他参加这次活动是因为他认为杀害俄罗斯人是不能接受的。He said that it was especially wrong to kill a Russian because Russians were natives.他说,特别是杀害俄罗斯人,那完全是错误的,因为俄罗斯人是这里的主人。One teenager who was there with a group of friends said that he was there because he felt a discrimination against Russians. He said if any Caucasian shouts glory to their country - then he is considered a patriot. But if we shout "Russia for the Russians," we break 282 clause of the criminal code, which forbids incitement of racial hatred. Why can't we shout Russia for the Russians if this is how it is?一组十几岁的青少年中的一个小伙子说,他来参加活动是因为他认为俄罗斯人受到了歧视。他说,如果一个高加索人高呼他的国家万岁,那么他被认为是一个爱国主义者,但如果我们喊“俄罗斯属于俄罗斯人”那么就违反了刑事法282条这个禁止煽动种族仇恨的条款。但如果这样,为什么我们不能高喊俄罗斯是俄罗斯人的口号呢?The event was peaceful, but with a large police presence. Expectations of violence followed the mass demonstration of around 5,000 Russian nationalists last December on Manezhnaya Square in central Moscow. That event left over 30 injured and sp fear that more of the same was to come.这次纪念活动是和平进行的,但是有大批警察在场。12月在莫斯科市中心马涅什广场有多达5000名民族主义人士参加的示威行动之后发生了暴力行动。那次事件导致30多人受伤,人们担心更多的类似事件还会发生。Prime Minister Vladimir Putin met with football fans to appeal for calm after December's riots.12月的暴乱之后俄罗斯总理普京会见了足球迷,呼吁安定。201101/123621
  • Cristiano Ronaldos baby son born to American womanCristiano Ronaldo’s baby son was born to an American woman in June, according to reports in Portugal.The Real Madridwinger, 25, announced that he had become a father on Facebook and Twitter during the weekend.The child’s mother wishes to remain anonymous and has agreed to leave the footballer as soleguardian, the statement said.Ronaldo’s mother, Delores, and sisters Elma and Katia are preparing to raise the child, according to the Portuguese newspaper Correio de Manha.The family is reportedly dealing with the paperwork necessary to move the baby from the US to Portugal. Ronaldo has homes in Los Angeles and Miami.The winger, who moved to Real Madrid from Manchester ed for a record fee of 80 million pounds (1.2 million) last year, said on Saturday that he was overjoyed to have become a father.He wrote: “It is with great joy and emotion that I inform I have recently become father to a baby boy. As agreed with the babys mother, who prefers to have her identity kept confidential, my son will be under my exclusive guardianship.“No further information will be provided on this subject and I request everyone to fully respect my right to privacy (and that of the child) at least on issues as personal as these are.”Ronaldos current girlfriend, the Russianlingeriemodel Irina Shayk, reacted to the news on Facebook, writing: ;My boyfriend is now father of a boy.;Ronaldo captained Portugal during their World Cup campaign in South Africa, which ended with a 1-0 defeat to Spain in the second round last Tuesday.Vocabulary:winger:a person who plays a wing position(边锋)guardian:One who is legally responsible for the care and management of the person or property of an incompetent or a minor.(监护人)lingerie:underwear, sleepwear, and other items of intimate apparel worn by women.(妇女贴身内衣)背单词 — 装英语词汇201007/108382
  • Fish oil supplements are a popular way to increase the intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are thought to have a wide range of beneficial effects, particularly for cardiovascular health. But are they effective in preventing cancer? A new study suggests the answer is … maybe.Women in the study — 35,000 of them — were asked in a questionnaire whether they used fish oil supplements. Six years later, those who did were much less likely to have had breast cancer."We found that women who were using fish oil at the time that they entered the study had a 32 percent lower risk of breast cancer than women who did not use fish oil supplements," said study leader Emily White of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle.She says there's good reason to suspect that omega-3 fatty acids might protect against cancer. "There's a strong evidence that cancer is related to inflammation. So fish oil fits into that mechanism, since it is an anti-inflammatory drug."Despite the evidence, White doesn't think her study alone justifies a recommendation that women start taking fish oil capsules."No, I don't think that a single study can lead to public health recommendations to start taking supplements," she says. "Really, we need randomized trials, where people are assigned to take a supplement versus not, to answer whether a pill would be useful to take for cancer prevention."White explained that in a randomized trial, participants would be randomly assigned to either take the supplements or not.By contrast, her study is what is known as an observational study, where participants themselves decide, in this case, whether to take a fish oil supplement, and then the researchers observe them to see who develops cancer. But the women who chose to use a supplement could be different in many other ways from those who didn't.White and her colleagues did try to factor those differences into their analysis, but scientists generally prefer a randomized study, and researchers at Harvard are now organizing one to study the effects of both omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D.White's paper is published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers amp; Prevention. 用鱼油营养补充剂,是增加欧米加-3脂肪酸摄取量的一种常用方式。欧米加-3被认为对健康有广泛的益处,特别是有益于心血管健康。但是,这些好处是否也包括预防癌症呢?一项新的研究显示,是“也许”。 参加研究的3万5千名女性首先被问及她们是否用鱼油。6年之后,用鱼油的女性罹患乳癌的比例比不用鱼油的女性要低得多。 主持这项研究的埃米莉·怀特说:“我们发现,这些研究开始时就在用鱼油营养补充剂的妇女罹患乳癌的风险,比不用鱼油的妇女低百分之32。”怀特在弗雷德·赫钦森癌症研究中心工作。 她说,有理由设想欧米加-3脂肪酸可能有助于预防癌症:“有非常有力的据,明癌症和炎症有关。而鱼油是一种抗炎剂,因此可见它在其中的作用。” 尽管有这个据,但怀特并不认为仅仅靠她的研究,就足以建议女性开始用鱼油胶囊。 她说:“我不认为仅仅根据一项研究,就可以提出用鱼油营养补充剂的公共卫生建议。实际上,我们需要做随机临床试验,随机指定参与研究的人用或不用营养剂,由此得到营养补充剂是否有助于预防癌症的。” 怀特说,在随机试验中,参与研究者被随机指定用或不用营养剂。 她的研究方法与此相反,那是一种观察式的研究。由参与者自行选择要不要用鱼油补充剂。然后研究人员观察她们,注意谁会患癌症。不过,选择用鱼油补充剂的妇女,也可能和不用鱼油的妇女,还有许多其它方面的不同。 怀特和她的同事们曾经尝试把各方面的不同因素纳入分析研究。不过,科学家们通常更愿意采用随机研究的方式。哈佛大学的研究人员也正在准备展开对欧米加-3 和维生素D的效果的研究。201007/110004
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