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上饶疤痕修复最好的医院Finance and economics财经商业Credit cards信用卡Skimming off the top偷蒙拐骗Why America has such a high rate of payment-card fraud.美国付卡诈骗频发原因何在AMERICA leads the world in many categories: shale-gas production, defence spending, incarceration rates and, alas, payment-card fraud.美国在很多方面都引领世界:页岩气生产,国防开销,监禁率以及,啧啧啧,付卡诈骗。In December Target, an American retailer, said that hackers had breached its network and stolen payment-card details of about 40m of its customers.去年12月份,美国零售商塔吉特公司表示,黑客入侵了其网络系统并窃取了约四千万名顾客的付卡信息。A few months before the Target breach, roughly 152m customers had their information stolen in a hack of Adobe Systems.在塔吉特入侵事件发生几个月之前,一次对Adobe系统的黑客入侵使得大约1亿5200万顾客的信息被盗。Last month Neiman-Marcus, a department store, reported a similar breach.尼曼百货商店也于上月报道了类似的入侵事件。For crooks, there are rich pickings in such data.对不法分子来说,这些数据有很大的利用价值。Total global payment-card fraud losses were 11.3 billion in 2012, up nearly 15% from the prior year.2012年,全球因付卡诈骗造成的损失达到113亿美元,比前一年增长了15%。The ed States—the only country in which counterfeit-card fraud is consistently growing—accounted for 47% of that amount, according to the Nilson Report: card issuers lost 3.4 billion and merchants another 1.9 billion.美国作为全球唯一一个伪造卡诈骗不断增加的国家,占到了其中的47%:根据尼尔森报告,持卡人的损失为34亿美元,而商户们则是19亿美元。A survey released in 2012 by the Aite Group and ACI Worldwide, a research and a payment-software firm respectively, found that 42% of Americans had experienced some form of payment-card fraud in the preceding five years.研究公司Aite Group和付软件公司ACI Worldwide发布于2012年的一项调查结果显示,42%的美国人在调查之前的5年中都遇到过付卡诈骗。Nor is it just Americans who are affected: foreigners whose card data is stolen often find the thieves have little trouble waltzing into stores and making purchases with ersatz cards.当然受害的不仅仅是美国人:付卡信息被盗取的外国顾客也经常发现不法分子轻而易举地就能在商店里用仿制的付卡进行购买。Europeans rack up more losses in this way in America than in any other country.欧洲顾客在美因此类手段而遭受的损失要超过在其他地区。In part, fraudsters target the ed States because thats where the cards are.诈骗犯瞄准美国的一个原因是,大部分的付卡都在这里。At the end of 2013 there were 1.2 billion debit, credit and pre-paid cards in circulation in America—more than in any other region.在2013年底,在美国流通的借记卡、信用卡和预付卡总数为12亿—超过任何其他地区。That is nearly five cards per adult.平均每个成年人拥有近5张付卡。But America also makes things easy for fraudsters: alone among developed countries, it still relies exclusively on cards with magnetic strips, which are far less secure than the chip-and-PIN technology used elsewhere.同时美国也让诈骗犯们更易得手:它是发达国家中唯一依然只使用卡片磁条作为安全手段的。This combines a personal code with a microchip from which it is harder to extract data than a magnetic strip.相比其他地区使用的芯片密码技术,这要不安全得多。芯片密码技术将个人密码存储在微芯片中,从中提取出信息要比从磁条中提取困难得多。As of 2012, 45% of the worlds payment cards and 76% of terminals were equipped to use chip-and-PIN.截至2012年,全世界45%的付卡和76%的付终端装备了使用芯片密码的设备。By 2011 this technology had brought some forms of card fraud in Britain to their lowest level in two decades.这项技术在2011年为英国将各种形式的付卡诈骗降低到了20年中的最低水平。The sp of chipped cards in Canada brought losses from skimming—stealing data from credit cards—from C142m in to C38.5m in 2012.而在加拿大,芯片卡的普及也使盗取信用卡信息引起的损失从年的1亿4200万加元减少到了2012年的3850万加元。At a series of Senate hearings earlier this month, Targets CFO said it would spend 100m to roll out chip-and-PIN store-issued credit cards and payment devices that accept them.本月早些时候,在一系列参议院听会上,塔吉特的财务总监表示该公司会斥资1亿美元推行采用芯片密码的商店发行信用卡以及相应的付设备。A consumer advocate urged other card issuers to do the same.消费者呼吁其他付卡发行商也采取类似措施。Though the switch may cost issuers and merchants as much as 8 billion, interest at long last appears to be growing.虽然这样做会给发行商与商户们增加高达80亿美元的开销,但长期利益将不断显现。Many of those costs may be recoverable over time through lower fraud losses.这些花费中的大部分会通过降低诈骗导致的损失而得到补偿。Chip-and-PIN would also harmonise American and global standards, making it easier for Americans to use their cards abroad and foreigners to use theirs in America.芯片密码技术还会统一美国和全球标准,利于美国民众在境外以及国外顾客在美国境内刷卡消费。It will make mobile payments easier.这将使移动付更为便利。And because recent banking regulations have reduced the amount of money banks make from interchange fees on debit cards, issuers are looking to trim costs elsewhere.由于业中新出台的法规使得借记卡交换费的收入减少,付卡发行方们正想方设法削减开,Fraud losses no longer seem as manageable as they once did.而诈骗引起的损失看来没有往日那样容易控制了。 /201402/276772上饶市红十字医院整形科 Business商业报道Companies and emissions企业使命Carbon copy复写本Some firms are preparing for a carbon price thatwould make a big difference一些公司准备使用碳价 这将带来极大的转变THE marketsfor CO2 have had about as good a year as Obamacare.对二氧化碳的市场管理就如同奥巴马医改一样,实施已有一年了。Europesemissions-trading system, the worlds largest carbon market, collapsed inApril.欧洲碳排放交易系统作为全球最大的碳市场在今年四月崩溃。Australiasnew government is killing off that countrys fledgling market.澳大利亚的新任政府正在遏止该国羽翼未丰的市场。Yet companiesare blithe.然而公司的经理人是很高兴的。Internal carbon prices, the price of a tonne of CO2 used for planning purposes within firms, are becoming an increasingly common business tool.Perhaps firms know something that markets and politicians do not.内部碳价作为用于公司内部计划目的的每吨二氧化碳的价格,正逐步成为一个常用的商业工具。或许企业的管理者知道与此相关的事物,而这却不在市场及政治家考虑的范围之内。A study byCDP, a research group, asked large firms based or operating in America whattools they had for managing risk; 29 said they used an internal carbon price.一个名为CDP的研究机构做了一项调查。该调查询问美国的公司或在美国经营的公司采用何种方式进行风险管理。29家公司表示他们用内部碳价进行风险管理。Anecdotally, more apply such a price but did not mention it as a risk-mitigation measure.更为让人惊奇的是,更多的公司运用这种策略却不称之为风险缓和措施。This is the first economy-wide picture of how farinternal carbon pricing has gone and what it is used for.这是第一幅展现内部碳价的作用的经济全景图。The pricesrange from 6-7 a tonne of carbon dioxide at Microsoft to 60 a tonne at ExxonMobil.每吨二氧化碳的定价根据公司不同而不同,从微软每吨6-7美元到埃克森美孚每吨60美元。The span is not surprising, since companies use carbon prices for different purposes.因为各个公司出于不同的目的制定碳价,这种差别并非惊人。As a rule, those whose assets have a long productive lifeand which might be affected by green policies far into the future use higher prices than consumer-goods firms whose products aremainly influenced by current policies.通常,那些生产较长寿命的设备的公司及在未来受环保政策影响的公司的碳价比那些主要受当前政策影响的消费品公司的高。For manycompanies the aim is to prepare themselves for future environmentallegislation.对许多公司来说,他们制定碳价的目的是为将来的应对环保立法做准备。AEP, a power supplier, says it uses the system because it assumesa price of carbon…will begin in the US by roughly 2020.美国电力公司这个电力供应商称他们利用该定价系统因为该公司人碳价…大约会在2020年在整个美国普及。Delta AirLines says it uses a price for evaluating flights to Europein anticipation of compliance with EU ETS.德尔塔航空公司称该公司利用定价机制评估飞往欧洲的航班,以期欧洲电信标准作出让步。This is notthe only reason.这并非唯一的原因。Many firms use an internal carbon price to calculate the valueof future projects and to guide investment decisions.许多公司利用内部碳价计算未来项目的价值从而指导投资决策。Conoco Phillips, an oilfirm, requires that capital projects worth over 75m calculate the cost ofemissions based on a price of between 8 and 46 a tonne, depending on the lifeof the project.康菲石油公司要求超过7500万美元的重要项目,必须根据项目的生命周期以每吨8-46美元的价格计算二氧化碳排放的成本。The forecast value of a new oilfield would be: estimated outputmultiplied by the estimated future oil price minus development costs and carbonemissions.估计一个新油田的价值将会是:预计产量+预估未来的油价-开发成本-碳排放成本。Shell,another oil company, applies a carbon price—40 a tonne—to some currentoperations, not only future ones.另一个石油公司英荷壳牌不仅仅对未来的项目,即便是当下运作的项目,也采取每吨40美元的碳价。The idea is to identify tall poppies.这一思想旨在确认最高碳价。The price implies that existing projectscould spend up to 40 to reduce a tonne of CO2.该定价暗示现有项目每减少一吨二氧化碳的排放需花费40美元。Angus Gillespie, Shells vice-president for CO2, says we applythe carbon price as much to spur mitigation as to quantify risks.英荷壳牌负责二氧化碳事宜的副总裁安格斯?吉莱斯皮称我们运用碳价来尽可能地缓解量化危机。Disney, amedia conglomerate, goes further still.媒体企业集团迪斯尼公司走得更深更远。It invests in schemes to offset orreduce carbon emissions and charges the cost of these to business units in proportionto how much they contribute to the companys overall emissions.该公司投资商业计划来抵消或减少碳排放并将碳排放的成本按照它们占公司总排放量的比例纳入商业单位。In effect, thisworks like an internal carbon tax.实际上,这就相当于一种内部碳税。Perhaps themost intriguing thing about the prices, though, is how high some of them are.可能碳价最吸引人的地方就是它们能达到多高。The market price of carbon is 4.90 per tonne of CO2 in the EU, 11.50in California.每吨二氧化碳排放的市场价在欧洲是4.9欧元,加利福尼亚是11.5美元。Big oil companies charge 34 or more. That is closer to the social cost ofcarbon—the damage from an extra tonne of CO2—than to the market price.大型石油公司定价为34美元或更多。这比市场碳价更接近社会碳成本—一吨碳导致的破坏。Americasadministration recently estimated the social cost at 37 a tonne.美国行政机构近期估计社会碳成本是每吨37美元。These priceschange behaviour.这些定价改变人们的行为。A huge amount of attention is paid to government action.人们更加重视政府的行动。But the sort of carbon price some companies are using for planning would, if itbecame a market price, have a much bigger impact than any of the policies thatgovernments are now talking about.但是某些公司运用这种碳价来制定商业计划,倘若该价格成为市场价格,将会比政府现在讨论的任何政策产生更大的影响。 /201312/269273弋阳县手术疤痕修复多少钱

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