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2017年12月12日 06:42:26    日报  参与评论()人

江西上饶去抬头纹多少钱上饶韩美医疗整形美容医院激光祛痣多少钱It#39;s a stat that gets bounced around as e-mail-forward wisdom: men think about sex every seven seconds. Even when the idea lacks this mythical specificity and grandiosity (that#39;s 7,200 times a day!), the idea that men think about sex basically all the time is widesp. And so, it is possible to attach all kinds of bogus statistics to the feeling that men are sex-crazed pigs.据一封被广为转发的电子邮件中的数据表明:男人每七秒钟就会想到性。虽然这种说法缺乏根据且过于夸张(那可是一天7200次!),但还是广为流传。看来“男人就是种猪”这种说法完全有可能被添油加醋地附上各种不靠谱的数据。But the actual number of times that men think about sex in a day is not clear-cut in scientific research. There is no perfect technology that taps into one#39;s sexy brain waves.但科学研究还没有就男人每天产生“性”趣的次数提出一个明确的。还没有技术能够监测到“人脑性电波”。What researchers really do is come up with clever ways of asking people what they#39;re thinking about. They call it ;experience sampling.; So, in a recent study, Ohio State University researchers gave people a clicker and were asked to hit one of three buttons on it—sex, food, sleep—every time the thought of one of those things came to mind. Their study showed that the average man had 19 thoughts about sex in a day.但研究人员想到了一个聪明的点子,就是问人们他们在想什么。研究人员将这种方法称之为“体验抽样”。在最近的一项研究中,俄亥俄州立大学的研究人员发给受访者一个点击器,上面有三个按钮,分别代表性、食物、睡眠,受访者被要求每当想到其中之一时便按下相应的按钮。该研究结果显示男人平均每天联想到性的次数是19次。But the design of the study could have influenced the frequency count, writes cognitive scientist Tom Stafford in a new column. If you tell people to try to notice every time they think about something, you might very well increase the frequency of their thoughts about that thing. (Researchers call this the ;white bear problem.;)但认知学专家汤姆·斯塔福德(Tom Stafford)在一期新专栏中写道,这种研究方法的设计原理也许影响了频率的计数结果。如果你让别人在想到某事时试着去记录的话,那么你很可能会提高他想到那件事的频率。(科研人员称之为“白熊效应”,其得名于1978年心理学上著名的“白熊试验”,即,对于事情,你越想忘记,反而记得的越清楚。)Other researchers—who use different sampling methods—get different results. So, a phone-based survey that asked participants more free-form questions seven times a day found that men think about sex less than they think about ;food, sleep, personal hygiene, social contact, time off, and (until about 5 p.m.) coffee.;其他研究者采用不同的抽样方法得出了不同的结果。他们采用电话调查的方式,每天七次向受访者问一些宽泛的问题。研究人员发现男人想到性的次数低于想到“食物、睡眠、个人卫生、社交、休假、咖啡(下午五点左右)”的次数。If you put these two studies together, as Stafford does, it#39;s obvious that the technique influences, if not outright dominates, the phenomenon being studied.如果你像斯塔福德一样把这两个研究综合起来看,你就会发现科技会影响男人想到性的次数,虽然不是百分百的影响。And yet the experience sampling method has gotten more popular, in part because everyone has a little computer in their hands all the time, which makes surveying much, much, much easier. ;Smartphones are an ideal platform for conducting Experience Sampling Method (ESM) based studies,; a recent review of sampling techniques found.然而“体验抽样”这一研究方法却越来越流行。部分原因是因为现如今人手一部手机使得调查要比过去方便得多。最近一项对抽样技术的研究表明:“智能手机是进行‘体验抽样’的绝佳平台。”But it#39;s difficult to judge a person#39;s thoughts, no matter what technology people use. The lead researcher in the Ohio State study, Terri Fisher, provided a self-critique of her study, which applies to many of them.但不管人们使用什么技术,都很难去判定一个人的想法。俄亥俄州立大学研究项目的带头人特芮·费舍尔就对自己的研究做了自我检讨,这些批评同样适用于其他的研究项目。;We weren#39;t able to study how long the thoughts lasted or the nature of the thoughts. We also don#39;t know if all of our participants followed the instructions and really clicked every time they had the sort of thought that they were supposed to track,; Fisher wrote. ;However, even if they didn#39;t, the fact that they were supposed to be clicking probably made them more aware of their thoughts about their assigned topic than they might otherwise have been, and that would have been reflected in their daily reports.;费舍尔写道:“我们没研究出想法持续的时长或其本质是什么。我们也不知道这些受访者是否遵从指示在每一次想到相应事物的时候都会按下按钮。但是,即使他们没有每次都按,‘要按按钮’这个念头也许会让他们比平时更加在意实验中提到的主题,而这或许就反映在他们每天的反馈数据中。”The perfect technology would directly measure one#39;s brain activity and somehow translate that into the number of sexual thoughts one had, but even that might prove very difficult. What we call ;a thought; is not the discrete thing that we like to pretend. ;There’s also the tricky issue that thoughts have no natural unit of measurement,; Stafford writes. ;Thoughts aren’t like distances we can measure in centimetres, metres and kilometres. So what constitutes a thought, anyway? How big does it need to be to count? Have you had none, one or many while ing this?;完美的技术或许能够直接监测脑部活动并通过某种方式记录下有关性的想法的次数,但即使这样也被明是很难实现的。所谓“一个想法”并非是我们可以假装出来的一个孤立的东西。斯塔福德写道:“比较棘手的是,想法并不能用单位来度量。它不像距离可以用厘米、米和公里来丈量。所以,到底是什么构成了一个想法?多大的想法才能被算作是一个想法?当你读到这段话的时候,你是毫无想法呢,还是有一个甚至许多想法?”Perhaps the more interesting question is why we want to quantify this kind of thing at all. Does it matter if men think of sex—however defined—12 times a day, or 19, or 7, or 400?也许,我们为什么想把男人的“性”趣量化才是个更有意思的问题。不管是每天12次、19次、7次还是400次,男人想到性的次数的多少——无论哪种算法——又有什么意义呢?These numbers reduce a whole set of arguments about the relative sexualities and norms of men and women, detaching the feelings from the lived experience of people.这些研究结果得出的数字减少了关于相对性征和男女标准的各种争论,打破了人们生活中“男人就是种猪”的固有认知。That may be useful rhetoric for proving that men are pigs or women should be chaste or whatever, but the data says more about the limitations of our survey technologies than the nature of human sexuality.也许从修辞手法来说,以上结论可以明“男人是猪”或女人应该保持纯洁,不过这些研究数据更多地体现了我们的调查技术的局限性,而非人类性活动的本质。 /201407/309520上饶祛除太田痣费用是多少 Is clutter weighing you down at home and the office?家里和办公室的杂乱无章是不是正让你感到不堪负重?Not sure where to start when it comes to clearing things out?一提起清扫整理,都不知道该怎么开始?Here are 10 clutter-clearing ideas to help you simplify and streamline your life.下面10招就能教你如何精简生活!1. Tidy up your desk整理办公桌Do you find it difficult to work on your desk or find office supplies when you need them? Remove old sticky notes, outdated papers and notes, junk mail, magazines, as well as any obvious trash and wrappers from your work space. Corral office supplies such as pens, paper clips and pushpins in small decorative containers, or store items in flat storage bins or trays in your desk drawers. Don’t forget to chuck any broken office supplies or dead plants that are on your desk or sitting in your office.是不是觉得桌上乱得无法做事?是不是在需要时怎么也翻不到某个物品?那就赶紧清理掉办公室里的过期便利贴、纸头便条、垃圾邮件、杂志,还有各种碍眼的杂物和包装纸吧。把铅笔、回形针、图钉等文具用品放到一个小盒子里,或者将物品归类到抽屉里的收纳盒中。别忘了扔掉办公桌或办公室里坏掉的文具和枯死的植物! /201402/275969上饶去眼带哪里医院最好

铅山县去除腋毛多少钱If you#39;ve ever dashed into the grocery store to pick up a tube of toothpaste, you#39;ve likely been stopped in your tracks by the glut of options available. There are at least more than a dozen brands, each one presenting several different specialties of cleaning ability: anti-cavity, whitening, better breath and healthier gums. Add to that the different costs, flavors and colors, and before you know it, an employee is asking you to make your way to the registers so the store can close.如果你冲进杂货店去买一牙膏,过多的选择很可能会让你停下来。至少有超过十二种品牌,每一种上都标注着几种清洁能力的不同特性:抗龋齿、美白、口气清新和健康牙龈。再加上不同的价格、味道和颜色,不知不觉中,商店里的雇员就催你去付款了,因为商品要关门了。But it#39;s not just the number of options that gives us pause -- it#39;s the amount of information each option has that trips us up, too. Social scientist Barry Schwartz interprets research on the subject to mean, in part, that an abundance of choices and information may make us falsely believe that the stakes are higher than they really are regarding the outcome of our decision.但是,我们停下来并不仅仅是因为选择的数量太多——每种选择所带给我们的信息也占部分原因。社会科学家巴里-施瓦茨对相关的研究进行了解释,在某种程度上,大量的选择和信息使我们错误地高估了选错的风险。He suggests that because we are presented with so much information, the overload of options and data leads us to falsely believe that, even a fairly mundane task like shopping for toothpaste, has great significance than it really does.他指出,由于我们面临着如此之多的信息,选择和数据的过量让我们错误地高估了任务的重要性,即便是像买牙膏这样相当常见的任务。Schwartz also points out that our increased ability to access information through the Internet can actually make matters worse. Inundated with results from a simple Web search, we must now choose which site among the hundreds of thousands to begin our evaluation.施瓦茨同时指出,我们访问互联网信息的能力日益增强,这会让事情变得更糟。一次简单的网页搜索就会出来大量的结果将我们淹没,我们必须对几十万的网站进行评估,从中进行选择。Our goal is to make the ;perfect; choice. When we make decisions, we#39;re motivated not only by the opportunity for gain, but also by the fear of loss. The decision-making process isn#39;t a purely analytical one -- researchers using functional magnetic resonance imaging on subjects who were faced with decisions discovered that the process of making a choice lights up portions of our brains that deal with regret and emotional memories: the medial orbitofrontal region, the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus.我们的目标是做出“完美”的选择。当我们在做决定时,我们不仅仅是希望有所得,我们也害怕有所失。决策的过程不是单纯的分析过程——研究人员使用功能性磁共振成像技术对面临决策的受试者进行了研究,他们发现做决策的过程点亮了大脑中处理遗憾和情感记忆的部分:内侧眶额区、前扣带回皮质和海马区。But what we may regret most, according to Schwartz, is the extra time spent analyzing and comparing each and every bit of information, which can lead to frustration and fatigue, ultimately diminishing our decision-making ability.据施瓦茨所说,我们最后悔的,是花费在分析和比较信息上的那些时间,它会让我们沮丧和疲劳,最终削弱我们制定决策的能力。One good approach is to place a value on the time it takes to make your decision, compared to the value of the decision itself. In the case of toothpaste, you probably serve your interests sufficiently by quickly choosing any toothpaste that keeps white teeth securely rooted in your minty mouth.其中的一种好的方法是给做选择所花的时间定一个值,并与做选择本身的价值进行比较。在牙膏的这个例子中,你很有可能会快速地随便选择一管牙膏,其实这样就能够满足你的要求了,因为任何一种牙膏都能让你的牙齿洁白并让你的口气保持清新。 /201403/278445上饶市立医院吸脂手术多少钱 VANCOUVER, British Columbia — AROUND the world, honeybee colonies are dying in huge numbers: About one-third of hives collapse each year, a pattern going back a decade. For bees and the plants they pollinate — as well as for beekeepers, farmers, honey lovers and everyone else who appreciates this marvelous social insect — this is a catastrophe.加拿大温哥华——目前,世界各地的蜂群都在大批死亡:每年都有大约三分之一的蜂巢坍塌,这种现象已持续了10年之久。对于蜜蜂及通过它们授粉的植物——还有养蜂人、农民、喜爱蜂蜜的人,以及所有欣赏这种神奇的群居昆虫的人而言——这都是个灾难。But in the midst of crisis can come learning. Honeybee collapse has much to teach us about how humans can avoid a similar fate, brought on by the increasingly severe environmental perturbations that challenge modern society.但是,这种危机之中也隐藏着一些学问。蜂巢的坍塌可以提供许多信息,告诉我们当愈加严重的环境问题对现代社会构成挑战之时,人们如何才能避免相似的命运。Honeybee collapse has been particularly vexing because there is no one cause, but rather a thousand little cuts. The main elements include the compounding impact of pesticides applied to fields, as well as pesticides applied directly into hives to control mites; fungal, bacterial and viral pests and diseases; nutritional deficiencies caused by vast acreages of single-crop fields that lack diverse flowering plants; and, in the ed States, commercial beekeeping itself, which disrupts colonies by moving most bees around the country multiple times each year to pollinate crops.蜜蜂的死亡尤其令人忧心,因为起因并非只有一个,而是有上千种轻微的破坏因素。主要原因包括,农田喷洒的杀虫剂,以及为了抑制小虫直接喷到蜂窝上的杀虫剂所造成的综合影响;带有真菌、细菌和病毒的害虫,以及疾病;由于大面积种植同一种作物而缺乏多种开花植物所造成的营养不足;在美国,商业养蜂人每年都会多次带蜂群在全国各地为作物授粉,这种做法也对蜂群造成了破坏。The real issue, though, is not the volume of problems, but the interactions among them. Here we find a core lesson from the bees that we ignore at our peril: the concept of synergy, where one plus one equals three, or four, or more. A typical honeybee colony contains residue from more than 120 pesticides. Alone, each represents a benign dose. But together they form a toxic soup of chemicals whose interplay can substantially reduce the effectiveness of bees’ immune systems, making them more susceptible to diseases.然而,真正的问题并不在于问题的多少,而是问题间的相互作用。我们从蜂群身上得出了一则核心教训,一旦忽视,就会给我们带来危险,那就是协同作用的概念——即一加一等于三,或者四,甚至更大的数值。一般而言,每个蜂巢都含有120多种杀虫剂残余物。单独来看,每种杀虫剂的剂量都是良性的。但是如果放在一起,它们就会形成一种有毒的化学液体,这些化学物质相互作用,会极大地破坏蜜蜂的免疫系统,让蜂群更容易患病。These findings provide the most sophisticated data set available for any species about synergies among pesticides, and between pesticides and disease. The only human equivalent is research into pharmaceutical interactions, with many prescription drugs showing harmful or fatal side effects when used together, particularly in patients who aly are disease-compromised. Pesticides have medical impacts as potent as pharmaceuticals do, yet we know virtually nothing about their synergistic impacts on our health, or their interplay with human diseases.这些发现所提供的,关于杀虫剂与杀虫剂、杀虫剂与疾病之间发生协同作用的数据集,是所有物种中最为详细的。对于人类,唯一对等的是对药物相互作用的研究。许多处方药在同时使用时,都会表现出有害乃至致命的副作用,对于那些已经生病的患者来说尤其如此。杀虫剂与药物的作用一样强大,但我们其实根本不知道它们会对我们的健康产生怎样的协同作用,也不知道它们会如何与人类的疾病相互影响。Observing the tumultuous demise of honeybees should alert us that our own well-being might be similarly threatened. The honeybee is a remarkably resilient species that has thrived for 40 million years, and the widesp collapse of so many colonies presents a clear message: We must demand that our regulatory authorities require studies on how exposure to low dosages of combined chemicals may affect human health before approving compounds.我们应该从观察蜜蜂大量死亡的现象中获得警示:我们自己的健康同样可能会受到威胁。蜜蜂是一种生命力极强的物种,4000万年来,繁衍不息。大量蜂群死亡的现象向我们传达了一条明确的信息:我们必须要求监管机构做出要求,在批准混合药物之前,必须研究低剂量的混合化学物会对人类健康造成何种影响。Bees also provide some clues to how we may build a more collaborative relationship with the services that ecosystems can provide. Beyond honeybees, there are thousands of wild bee species that could offer some of the pollination service needed for agriculture. Yet feral bees — that is, bees not kept by beekeepers — also are threatened by factors similar to those afflicting honeybees: heavy pesticide use, destruction of nesting sites by overly intensive agriculture and a lack of diverse nectar and pollen sources thanks to highly effective weed killers, which decimate the unmanaged plants that bees depend on for nutrition.蜜蜂还为我们提供了一些线索,告诉我们如何能与生态系统所提供的务建立起更具合作性的关系。除蜜蜂以外,还有数千种野蜂也能提供农作物所需的授粉务。不过野生蜂——即不是养蜂人所养的蜜蜂——也受到了与蜜蜂的境况相似的威胁:大量使用杀虫剂;农耕过于集中造成筑巢区被摧毁;高效除草剂的使用,减少了花蜜和花粉来源的多样性——除草剂大量消灭了作为蜜蜂营养来源的野生植物。Recently, my laboratory at Simon Fraser University conducted a study on farms that produce canola oil that illustrated the profound value of wild bees. We discovered that crop yields, and thus profits, are maximized if considerable acreages of cropland are left uncultivated to support wild pollinators.最近,我在西蒙弗雷泽大学(Simon Fraser University)的实验室对生产菜籽油的农场进行了研究。研究发现,野蜂能发挥重要价值。我们发现,如果把相当一部分农田留出来不耕作,而是用来为野生授粉昆虫提供生存资料,那么粮食产量和收入就会最大限度地提高。A variety of wild plants means a healthier, more diverse bee population, which will then move to the planted fields next door in larger and more active numbers. Indeed, farmers who planted their entire field would earn about ,000 in profit per farm, whereas those who left a third unplanted for bees to nest and forage in would earn ,000 on a farm of similar size.野生植物种类繁多,就意味着蜜蜂也会更健康、种类更多,然后就会有更多、更活跃的蜜蜂飞到旁边的种植区。把所有农田种满的农民,每个农场的收益约为2.7万美元(约合17万元人民币),而对于那些面积相当的农场,如果留出三分之一的农田不耕作,而是供蜜蜂筑巢和搜寻食物,其收益则为6.5万美元。Such logic goes against conventional wisdom that fields and bees alike can be uniformly micromanaged. The current challenges faced by managed honeybees and wild bees remind us that we can manage too much. Excessive cultivation, chemical use and habitat destruction eventually destroy the very organisms that could be our partners.这种逻辑与常规观念存在冲突,后者认为我们可以对农田和蜜蜂等事物进行细致入微的管理。但家养的蜜蜂和野蜂目前所面临的挑战提醒却我们,我们或许管得太多了。过度的耕作、化学品的使用和栖息地的破坏,最终会破坏原本能成为我们的合作伙伴的有机体。And this insight goes beyond mere agricultural economics. There is a lesson in the decline of bees about how to respond to the most fundamental challenges facing contemporary human societies. We can best meet our own needs if we maintain a balance with nature — a balance that is as important to our health and prosperity as it is to the bees.这种观点的意义不仅在于农业经济学。蜂群数量的减少告诉我们要如何回应当代人类社会所面临的最基本挑战。如果我们能与自然保持平衡,我们就能最好地满足自己的需求——这种平衡对于我们的健康和繁荣很重要,对蜂群也一样。 /201409/326502上饶脸部激光脱毛哪家医院好

上饶韩美整形医院减肥手术多少钱For Michele Leonhart, the administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, there is no difference between the health effects of marijuana and those of any other illegal drug. “All illegal drugs are bad for people,” she told Congress in 2012, refusing to say whether crack, methamphetamines or prescription painkillers are more addictive or physically harmful than marijuana.在美国禁毒署署长米歇尔·莱昂哈特(Michele Leonhart)看来,大麻引起的健康问题和其他违禁药品引起的健康问题是没有区别的。“所有违禁药品都对人们有害,”她在2012年的时候对国会做了上述表示,但她不愿意评价精炼可卡因、冰毒或处方止痛药是否比大麻更容易上瘾、对身体的危害更大。Her testimony neatly illustrates the vast gap between antiquated federal law enforcement policies and the clear consensus of science that marijuana is far less harmful to human health than most other banned drugs and is less dangerous than the highly addictive but perfectly legal substances known as alcohol and tobacco. Marijuana cannot lead to a fatal overdose. There is little evidence that it causes cancer. Its addictive properties, while present, are low, and the myth that it leads users to more powerful drugs has long since been disproved.关于大麻,科学上已经有清晰的共识,认为它对人体健康的害处远比大多数禁药要小,危险性也比酒精饮料和烟草等合法的高成瘾性物品要低,但莱昂哈特的词反映出,陈旧的联邦法规强制措施与科学共识之间有着巨大的鸿沟。过量使用大麻不会引起致命后果。几乎没有据表明它能致癌。它虽然有成瘾性,但极其微小,关于它会导致使用者尝试更强烈的毒品这一神话早就被明是假的。That doesn’t mean marijuana is harmless; in fact, the potency of current strains may shock those who haven’t tried it for decades, particularly when ingested as food. It can produce a serious dependency, and constant use would interfere with job and school performance. It needs to be kept out of the hands of minors. But, on balance, its downsides are not reasons to impose criminal penalties on its possession, particularly not in a society that permits nicotine use and celebrates drinking.这并不意味着大麻完全无害;事实上,当前品种的药效可能会令几十年没有尝试过它的人感到震惊,特别是作为食物口使用。它可以造成严重的依赖,持续使用会影响工作与学习表现。未成年人必须远离它。但是总体来说,它的副作用并不足以持对持有者施加刑事惩罚,更何况这个社会允许使用尼古丁,还赞美饮酒。Marijuana’s negative health effects are arguments for the same strong regulation that has been effective in curbing abuse of legal substances. Science and government have learned a great deal, for example, about how to keep alcohol out of the hands of minors. Mandatory underage drinking laws and effective marketing campaigns have reduced underage alcohol use to 24.8 percent in 2011, compared with 33.4 percent in 1991. Cigarette use among high school students is at its lowest point ever, largely thanks to tobacco taxes and growing municipal smoking limits. There is aly some early evidence that regulation would also help combat teen marijuana use, which fell after Colorado began broadly regulating medical marijuana in 2010.大麻对健康的负面作用成为对其采取强硬措施的理由,在限制滥用合法物品方面,强硬措施作用显著。科学界与政府已经获得不少经验,比如说,该怎样让未成年人远离酒精饮料。通过禁止法定年龄以下的人饮酒的强制性法令,以及切实有效的市场宣传,2011年,未成年人饮酒率降低到24.8%,低于1991年的33.4%。受益于烟草税和日渐增加的市政吸烟限制规定,中学生的烟草使用率也已达到有史以来的最低点。已有若干早期据表明,制定相关规定有助于减少青少年对大麻的使用——2010年,科罗拉多州开始宏观管理医用大麻,青少年对大麻的使用率也随之下降。Comparing the Dangers危险性对比As with other recreational substances, marijuana’s health effects depend on the frequency of use, the potency and amount of marijuana consumed, and the age of the consumer. Casual use by adults poses little or no risk for healthy people. Its effects are mostly euphoric and mild, whereas alcohol turns some drinkers into barroom brawlers, domestic abusers or maniacs behind the wheel.与其他消遣物相比,大麻对健康的影响视使用频率、药效、使用量,以及使用者的年龄而定。健康的成年人偶尔少量使用,是几乎乃至完全没有任何危险的。大麻的效果主要是令人精神愉快,变得温和,而酒精则会令有些饮酒者在酒吧里惹是生非,在家里施行暴力,或者危险驾驶。An independent scientific committee in Britain compared 20 drugs in 2010 for the harms they caused to individual users and to society as a whole through crime, family breakdown, absenteeism, and other social ills. Adding up all the damage, the panel estimated that alcohol was the most harmful drug, followed by heroin and crack cocaine. Marijuana ranked eighth, having slightly more than one-fourth the harm of alcohol.2010年,一个英国独立科学委员会对比了20种药品对个体使用者的伤害,乃至对社会整体的伤害(包括导致犯罪、家庭破裂、旷工旷课,乃至其他社会问题)。将所有的伤害综合在一起后,该小组认为酒精是最有害的物品,海洛因与精炼可卡因紧随其后。大麻位列第八,伤害性约相当于酒精的1/4多一点。Federal scientists say that the damage caused by alcohol and tobacco is higher because they are legally available; if marijuana were legally and easily obtainable, they say, the number of people suffering harm would rise. However, a 1995 study for the World Health Organization concluded that even if usage of marijuana increased to the levels of alcohol and tobacco, it would be unlikely to produce public health effects approaching those of alcohol and tobacco in Western societies.联邦政府的科学家说,酒精与烟草带来的伤害较高,主要是因为它们可以合法获取,因此他们认为,如果大麻也合法化、可以轻松获取的话,那么受到伤害的人数也会增加。然而,1995年,世界卫生组织的一项研究推断,即便大麻的使用率增长到和酒精与烟草同样的水平,它在西方社会所引发的公共健康问题也不太可能达到酒精与烟草的程度。Most of the risks of marijuana use are “small to moderate in size,” the study said. “In aggregate, they are unlikely to produce public health problems comparable in scale to those currently produced by alcohol and tobacco.”这项研究声称,使用大麻所带来的大部分危险在等级上处于“很小或中等程度”。“总体而言,它导致的公共健康问题不太可能达到目前烟草与酒精所导致的这种规模。”While tobacco causes cancer, and alcohol abuse can lead to cirrhosis, no clear causal connection between marijuana and a deadly disease has been made. Experts at the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the scientific arm of the federal anti-drug campaign, published a review of the adverse health effects of marijuana in June that pointed to a few disease risks but was remarkably frank in acknowledging widesp uncertainties. Though the authors believed that legalization would expose more people to health hazards, they said the link to lung cancer is “unclear,” and that it is lower than the risk of smoking tobacco.吸烟会导致癌症,酗酒则会导致肝硬化,而大麻与任何致死疾病之间都没有清晰的因果联系。国家药物滥用研究所的专家们是联邦反毒品行动中的科学力量,他们于6月发布了一份关于大麻对健康损害的报告,指出大麻有若干致病风险,但它也非常坦白地承认,这些风险存在着不确定性。尽管报告作者们相信,大麻合法化会使得更多人蒙受健康风险,但报告也说大麻与肺癌之间的关系“不明确”,而且吸大麻比吸烟的风险要低。The very heaviest users can experience symptoms of bronchitis, such as wheezing and coughing, but moderate smoking poses little risk. A 2012 study found that smoking a joint a day for seven years was not associated with adverse effects on pulmonary function. Experts say that marijuana increases the heart rate and the volume of blood pumped by the heart, but that poses a risk mostly to older users who aly have cardiac or other health problems.最为频繁的大麻使用者会有气管炎的症状,比如气喘和咳嗽,但一般用量的使用者风险很小。一项2012年的研究表明,连续七年每日吸一大麻卷烟不会引起肺功能损害。专家说大麻会加快心率,以及心脏的供血量,但这主要是对已经患有心脏病和其他健康问题的老年使用者有风险。How Addictive Is Marijuana?大麻的成瘾性有多高?Marijuana isn’t addictive in the same sense as heroin, from which withdrawal is an agonizing, physical ordeal. But it can interact with pleasure centers in the brain and can create a strong sense of psychological dependence that addiction experts say can be very difficult to break. Heavy users may find they need to take larger and larger doses to get the effects they want. When they try to stop, some get withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, sleeping difficulties and anxiety that are usually described as relatively mild.大麻的成瘾性与海洛因完全不能相提并论。戒除海洛因非常痛苦,是对身体的严峻考验。但是大麻可以与大脑中的快乐神经中枢互动,产生强烈的精神依赖,药物成瘾专家说这种联系很难消除。重度使用者可能会需要更大的剂量,才能达到自己想要的效果。想要停止使用时,会出现易怒、睡眠障碍和焦虑等戒断症状,这些症状通常被描述为相对轻微。The American Society of Addiction Medicine, the largest association of physicians specializing in addiction, issued a white paper in 2012 opposing legalization because “marijuana is not a safe and harmless substance” and marijuana addiction “is a significant health problem.”美国成瘾药物协会是最大的专攻成瘾药物的医生组织,2012年,它发表了一份白皮书,反对大麻合法化,因为“大麻不是一种安全无害的物品”,而且大麻成瘾“是严重的健康问题”。Nonetheless, that health problem is far less significant than for other substances, legal and illegal. The Institute of Medicine, the health arm of the National Academy of Sciences, said in a 1999 study that 32 percent of tobacco users become dependent, as do 23 percent of heroin users, 17 percent of cocaine users, and 15 percent of alcohol drinkers. But only 9 percent of marijuana users develop a dependence.不管怎样,这种健康问题远比其他合法或不合法物品所带来的健康问题要轻微得多。药学研究中心是国家科学院的健康分部,它在1999年的一份研究报告中说,32%的吸烟者会上瘾,23%的海洛因使用者会上瘾,17%的可卡因使用者会上瘾,15%的饮酒者会上瘾,但只有9%的大麻使用者会上瘾。“Although few marijuana users develop dependence, some do,” according to the study. “But they appear to be less likely to do so than users of other drugs (including alcohol and nicotine), and marijuana dependence appears to be less severe than dependence on other drugs.”“大麻上瘾者人数很少,但确实有人会上瘾,”这项研究说,“但是和使用其他药品(包括酒精与尼古丁)相比,大麻的成瘾率很低。”There’s no need to ban a substance that has less than a third of the addictive potential of cigarettes, but state governments can discourage heavy use through taxes and education campaigns and help provide treatment for those who wish to quit.完全没有必要禁止一种成瘾率不到香烟1/3的东西,但各州政府可以通过征收重税和教育来防止人们大量使用大麻,并对需要戒断的人提供治疗。Impact on Young People对年轻人的影响One of the favorite arguments of legalization opponents is that marijuana is the pathway to more dangerous drugs. But a wide variety of researchers have found no causal factor pushing users up the ladder of harm. While 111 million Americans have tried marijuana, only a third of that number have tried cocaine, and only 4 percent heroin. People who try marijuana are more likely than the general population to try other drugs, but that doesn’t mean marijuana prompted them to do so.反对大麻合法化的人最常用的论据之一,就是大麻会导致使用者尝试更危险的毒品。但各种广泛研究明,大麻与使用者升级使用更危险的物品之间不存在因果关系。1.11亿美国人都曾尝试使用大麻,尝试使用可卡因的人只有该数字的1/3,尝试使用海洛因的人只相当于这个数字的4%。在使用大麻的人群中,尝试其他毒品的人数比例要比普通人群为高,但并不是大麻导致了此行为。Marijuana “does not appear to be a gateway drug to the extent that it is the cause or even that it is the most significant predictor of serious drug abuse,” the Institute of Medicine study said. The real gateway drugs are tobacco and alcohol, which young people turn to first before trying marijuana.药学研究中心的报告说,大麻“并不是一种入门药物,并不是药物严重滥用的原因,甚至也不是药物严重滥用的重要预示因素”。真正的入门药物是烟草和酒精,年轻人早在尝试大麻之前就已经接触到它们了。It’s clear, though, that marijuana is now far too easy for minors to obtain, which remains a significant problem. The brain undergoes active development until about age 21, and there is evidence that young people are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of marijuana.不过,对于未成年人来说,如今获取大麻显然非常容易,这仍然是个严重的问题。大脑发育活动要持续到21岁,有据表明年轻人更容易受大麻副作用影响。A long-term study based in New Zealand, published in 2012, found that people who began smoking heavily in their teens and continued into adulthood lost an average of eight I.Q. points by age 38 that could not be fully restored. A Canadian study published in 2002 also found an I.Q. loss among heavy school-age users who smoked at least five joints a week.2012年,一项新西兰的长期研究表明,从十几岁开始大量使用大麻,并在成年期持续使用大麻的人到38岁时智商会下降8分,无法完全恢复。另一项加拿大于2002年发布的研究表明,学龄期大量使用大麻(每周至少吸五大麻烟卷)会导致智商下降。The case is not completely settled. The New Zealand study was challenged by a Norwegian researcher who said socio-economic factors may have played a role in the I.Q. loss. But the recent review by experts at the National Institute on Drug Abuse concluded that adults who smoked heavily in adolescence had impaired neural connections that interfered with the functioning of their brains. Early and frequent marijuana use has also been associated with poor grades, apathy and dropping out of school, but it is unclear whether consumption triggered the poor grades.这项结论并未完全定案。新西兰的研究受到挪威一个研究者的质疑,他声称社会经济因素也可能导致智商下降。但国家药物滥用研究所最近的专家报告认为,从青春期就大量使用大麻的人的神经连接会受到损害,从而影响大脑功能。过早经常使用大麻也与成绩不佳、缺乏兴趣和辍学有关,但成绩不佳是否由使用大麻导致,目前尚不明确。Restricting marijuana to adults is more important now that Colorado merchants are selling THC, the drug’s active ingredient, in candy bars, cookies and other edible forms likely to appeal to minors. Experience in Colorado has shown that people can quickly ingest large amounts of THC that way, which can produce frightening hallucinations.目前,更重要的是把大麻的使用局限在成年人范围之内,科罗拉多州商人正在贩卖掺入四氢大麻酚(这是大麻的活性成分,简称THC)的糖果、饼干,以及其他可食用物品,这对未成年人来说可能很有吸引力。科罗拉多的经验表明人们可以通过食用途径,迅速吸收大量THC,这有可能导致可怕的幻觉。Although marijuana use had been declining among high school students for more than a decade, in recent years it has started to climb, in contrast to continuing declines in cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Marijuana was found -- alone or in combination with other drugs -- in more than 455,000 patients visiting emergency rooms in 2011. Nearly 70 percent of the teenagers in residential substance-abuse programs run by Phoenix House, which operates drug and alcohol treatment centers in 10 states, listed marijuana as their primary problem.尽管十年多以来,大麻在高中生中的使用率已经下降,但近年又开始出现攀升,与此同时,吸烟和喝酒的比例一直在下降。2011年,有45.5万名急诊病人被发现使用大麻(以及其他药品)。“凤凰屋”(Phoenix House)在10个州中经营着毒品与酗酒治疗中心,在它所主办的家庭反滥用毒品计划中,近70%的受助青少年将大麻列为自己最初的问题。Those are challenges for regulators in any state that chooses to legalize marijuana. But they are familiar challenges, and they will become easier for governments to deal with once more of them bring legal marijuana under tight regulation.这些都是选择将大麻合法化的各州管理者所面临的挑战。但这都是一些熟悉的挑战,各州政府一旦将合法化的大麻置于严格管理之下,问题就会变得容易应付得多。 /201408/322918 As a water planner in Utah, Pat Crowley had grown frustrated that his message of conservation was being largely ignored by an agriculture industry intent on siphoning off the Colorado River to keep crops in California and other Western states succulent.帕特·克劳利原本是美国犹他州的一名水资源规划师,他一直热衷于传播水资源保护理念。但农业界一心只想着如何从科罗拉多河抽取河水来滋养加利福尼亚州和西部其他州的农作物,对于他的理论基本上置若罔闻,这让克劳利非常沮丧。Then a few years ago, the 34-year-old whitewater rafting enthusiast was listening to a TED talk on edible insects, which touted the critters as a surprising potent source of protein. The more he heard about the potential water savings from swapping insects for traditional protein like soy and grains, the more he realized it might be time to change professions.几年前,这位34岁的漂流爱好者有机会聆听了一场TED演讲,主题是可食用昆虫。演讲者把这些小动物誉为惊人的蛋白质来源。而且,放弃诸如大豆和谷物这类传统的蛋白质来源,转而利用小昆虫,显然具有节约用水的巨大潜力。他越听越觉得,可能是时候改变职业了。After toying with farming insects in 2011 for animal feed, Crowley, his wife Erica Koltenuk, co-founder Dan O’Neill and several friends set up shop in a local restaurant in Salt Lake City and began experimenting with making flour from crickets. Yes, crickets– through a process whereby the bugs are roasted, ground into a powder, and added to a mixture that also includes organic dates, nuts and spices.2011年,在抱着玩玩的心态饲养了一些用于动物饲料的昆虫之后,克劳利和妻子埃里卡o科尔特努克、联合创始人丹o奥尼尔以及几个朋友在盐湖城开设了一家餐厅,开始尝试着以蟋蟀为原料制作面粉。是的,以蟋蟀为原料。具体流程是,先焙烧这些小虫子,研磨成粉,然后将它们添加到一种还包括有机枣,坚果和香料的混合物之中。A year later, they unveiled Chapul cricket bars, the first-ever energy bar made from cricket flour. The bars, each containing the equivalent of 25 crickets and claiming to contain twice the protein of their competitors, are now in over 200 health food, bike and extreme sports stores nationwide—the latest being Colorado-based Natural Grocers, a chain of 100 stores in the Midwest and West.一年后,他们推出第一款使用蟋蟀粉制作的能量棒——Chapul蟋蟀棒。每个能量棒包含大约25只蟋蟀,其蛋白质含量据说是竞争对手的两倍。现在,这款能量棒已经进入200多家位于全美各地的保健食品、单车和极限运动商店。最新一家合作伙伴是总部位于科罗拉多州,在中西部和西部地区拥有100家门店的Natural Grocers连锁零售公司。“I decided to create a consumer product that would make it a very easy first step for people to try insects in a way that wasn’t a novelty but incorporate it into a staple food – make it more of a nutritional product,” says Crowley, who has long blond hair and bears a passing resemblance to the late Kurt Cobain. “This was definitely a mission-driven endeavor. It turns out the market has been responsive to it.”克劳利说,“我决定创建一种消费产品,让人们很容易迈出品尝昆虫的第一步,因为这种食品把昆虫融入一种主食,这样它就更像是一种营养产品,这种吃法不算特别新奇。”留着一头金色长发的克劳利看上去颇像已故歌星科特o柯本。“这是一次完全受使命感推动的尝试。事实明,市场对我们的努力做出了响应。”The bar got a huge boost when Crowley, dressed in a Chapul T-shirt and carrying a container of crickets, was selected to appear in March on the entrepreneur show Shark Tank, the hit business competition show on A in which entrepreneurs pitch their ideas to a panel of judges. After initial reactions of “you gotta be kidding” and “there is no way I’m eating that,” the panel warmed to the product—and panelist and Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban agreed to invest ,000 for a 15 percent stake in the business (“Let’s eat some crickets,” he told Crowley).3月份,当克劳利身穿Chapul T恤,携带一个装满蟋蟀的容器出现在A电视台收视率极高的创业节目《鲨鱼坦克》(SharkTank) 时,这种能量棒的知名度瞬间暴涨。参与这档商业竞争节目的创业者往往需要使出浑身解数,向一组评委推销他们的创业点子。乍一听克劳利介绍完,评委们纷纷表示,“你肯定是在开玩笑,”“我绝对不会吃这玩意,”但他们随后对这款产品产生了浓厚兴趣。担任评委的达拉斯小牛队 (Dallas Mavericks)老板马克o库班当场拍板,承诺将投资5万美元购买这家公司15%的股权(“让我们吃一些蟋蟀吧,”他告诉克劳利)。“It’s a solution to a problem,” Cuban said via Twitter. “We need better sources of protein and over time I think consumer habits will change.”“这是一个解决问题的方法,”库班通过Twitter表示。“我们需要更好的蛋白质来源,假以时日,我认为消费习惯会发生变化。”In fact, Chapul is just one of a dozen or more new companies attempting to change the way Americans look at bugs. Brooklyn-based Exo is making protein bars, Boston-based-Six Foods is planning to sell tortilla chips made from cricket flour, and All Things Bugs, a Gainesville, FL-based firm founded by an entomologist, is looking to sell its own cricket flour to this burgeoning market. EnviroFlight in Ohio and AgriProtein in South Africa, meanwhile, are among at least four companies globally producing insects for the pet food, aquaculture or animal feed markets.事实上,除了Chapul之外,还有十几家新公司正在尝试着改变人们看待小昆虫的方式。布鲁克林的EXO公司正在制作蛋白质能量棒。波士顿Six Foods公司打算销售用蟋蟀粉制作的墨西哥炸玉米片。总部位于佛罗里达州盖恩斯维尔,由一位昆虫学家创建的All Things Bugs公司也计划向这个新兴市场销售自己的蟋蟀粉。与此同时,至少有四家公司正在全球各地针对宠物食品,水产养殖或动物饲料市场生产昆虫,比如俄亥俄州的EnviroFlight公司和南非的AgriProtein公司。The big opportunity they see: the consumption of insects as protein is much less taxing on the environment—growing, harvesting and processing them takes far less resources than chickens, cows and pigs, one percent of the greenhouse gasses of cattle and 100 times less water—so they tap into the current sustainability craze. They’re rich in protein and other key nutrients like omega-3 acids. And the products can be made at a low cost—until now, with very little competition.他们看到了一个大机遇:消费昆虫蛋白质对环境的损害要远低于传统蛋白质来源——与鸡、牛和猪相比,饲养、收获和加工昆虫耗费的资源要少得多。因此,这类食品特别容易拨动热衷于可持续发展理念的当代人的心弦。昆虫含有丰富的蛋白质和诸如ω-3脂肪酸这类关键的营养素。这类产品的制作成本相对较低,而且直到目前,竞争对手寥寥无几。But convincing Americans to eat anything containing creepy crawlers is not an easy sell. Unlike the developing world, where the U.N.’s Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that two billion people depend daily on as many as 1,900 insect species for food, Americans and much of the West have long considered spiders, grasshoppers, crickets, flies and bees to be a nuisance that must be swatted away or stamped out.但要说美国人吃任何一种以令人毛骨悚然的爬虫为原料的食物,可不是一件容易做到的事情。不同于很多发展中国家——联合国粮农组织(Food and Agriculture Organization)估计,有20亿发展中国家人口每天依靠多达1,900种昆虫为食——美国人和其他西方国家一向认为蜘蛛、蝗虫、蟋蟀、苍蝇和蜜蜂皆是令人不胜其扰的小动物,必须赶紧驱离,或者干脆当场歼灭。But Crowley and other edible insect aficionados are counting on younger, environmentally-conscious Millennials to move the sector beyond gag gifts like lollipops with scorpions or one-off bug buffets to become a staple in health food stores, snack stands and the larger food chain. The key, they say, is playing up the health benefits of eating products with insects while emphasizing bugs’ small environmental footprint.但克劳利和其他可食用昆虫爱好者正在把推动这个行业的希望寄托在更年轻,更具环保意识的千禧一代身上,希望他们不只是把昆虫食品当作类似蝎子棒棒糖这种恶作剧礼物,或者一次性自助餐,还会推动这类食品成为健康食品商店、小吃店和大食品连锁店销售的一种主食。他们声称,关键是要大力宣扬吃昆虫产品对健康的好处,同时要强调昆虫食品的环境足迹要远小于传统蛋白质来源这一事实。“We are trying to set up future generations with a more sustainable food system, one that is more resource efficient and one that is more adaptable to a more changing climate,” Crowley says.“我们正在努力为子孙后代建立一个更具可持续性,更节约资源,更适应气候变化的食物系统,”克劳利说。Rose Wang, co-founder of Six Foods, which in May raised ,000 on Kickstarter to make its Chirps cricket chips and hopes to have the product in stores by fall, agrees. “It’s all about the vision of what eating insects can be,” Wang said in an e-mail interview, pointing out that the bugs are high in protein, low in fat, and can be raised humanely in small spaces, without antibiotics or growth hormones. “There is no question that insects are the most humane way to eat meat,” she says, “And as people become more cognizant of where their food comes from and how it is produced, they are becoming more open to new sustainable foods like insects.”露丝o王认同这种看法。五月份,这位Six Foods公司联合创始人在众筹平台Kickstarter上筹集了7万美元,开始制作Chirps蟋蟀条,她希望这款产品能够在今年秋天进入食品店。在接受电邮采访时,王女士表示,“这就是吃昆虫能够带给我们的美好愿景。”她指出,昆虫不仅具有高蛋白,低脂肪等特质,而且可以在小空间内人性化饲养,无需使用抗生素或生长激素。“毫无疑问,昆虫是最人性化的吃肉方式,”她说。“随着人们对于食物的来源和生产方式有了更深入的了解,他们越来越愿意接受像昆虫这种全新的可持续性食物。”Glen Courtright, CEO and founder of EnviroFlight, is going even further with the environmental approach. His company takes some of the estimated 36 million tons of food waste that ends up in landfills each year and feeds it to the larvae of black soldier flies. A protein meal and oil derived from the dehydrated fly larvae are then packaged and shipped to the pet trade–as well as fish and pig farmers who are clamoring for a protein substitute for fishmeal, which comes from aly overfished oceans.在环保之路上,EnviroFlight公司创始人兼CEO格伦o考特赖特走得更远。他的公司每年利用估计3,600 万吨运送至垃圾填满场的食品垃圾,来喂养被他称为黑士兵的苍蝇幼虫。然后,衍生自脱水蝇蛆的蛋白粉和油被打包运送到宠物市场,以及养鱼户和养猪户。这些农民一直吵着要求获得一种能够替代鱼粉的蛋白物质——海洋已经被过度捕捞,难以为继。EnviroFlight is also partnering with the feed industry around the world to provide its technology and know-how on raising insects for animal feed. Courtright expects to see growth of 50 percent this year, adding that he is struggling to keep up with demand.此外,EnviroFlight正在与世界各地的饲料行业合作,为后者提供养育昆虫饲料的技术和专业知识持。考特赖特预计今年的业务量将增长50%,他正在努力跟上不断增长的需求。“Big business understands there has to be a fish meal replacement, a sustainable fish meal replacement,” said Courtright, who initially explored producing oil from insects, bacteria and then algae for biofuels before shifting to the feed sector. “They are seeing the viability of the product and they are understanding insect technologies are real and they are coming.”考特赖特声称,“大企业明白,必须找到一种传统鱼粉的替代物,一种具有可持续性的替代物。”在转向饲料行业之前,他起初尝试着从昆虫、细菌和藻类中提炼生物燃料。“他们将发现这种产品是可行的,意识到昆虫技术不是骗局,就会找上门来。”But will insects catch on as pizza did after World War II or sushi did in the 1970s?但这些小动物能否像比萨饼在二战后,或寿司在20世纪70年代那样风行一时?Some experts think the deluge of new insect-related companies could be a turning point in entomophagists’ (that’s those who advocate for insects as food) decades-long battle to get the six and eight-legged critters onto the plates of consumers.数十年来,食虫学家(即那些主张食用昆虫的人士)一直在竭力推动六条腿和八条腿的小动物进入消费者的餐盘。有专家认为,与昆虫相关的新企业不断涌现,或将成为这种努力的转折点。“This is more than a blip. This is the beginning of a curve that will go steadily up,” said Montana State University Associate Prof. Florence V. Dunkel, a leading edible insect expert who organizes an annual bug buffet on campus each year featuring delicacies like wax moth larvae quesadillas, curried mealworms and Chinese stir fry made with crickets.“这种现象不是昙花一现,而会成为一条将稳步上升的曲线的开端,”蒙大拿州立大学(Montana State University )副教授弗洛伦斯o邓克尔说。这位著名的食用昆虫专家每年都在校园组织一场昆虫自助餐,其中的特色佳肴包括蜡蛾幼虫油炸玉米饼、用咖哩粉烹调的黄粉虫和爆炒蟋蟀。“There was the environment,” she says, ticking off forces that are driving interest in the new food group. “There was the need to have more nutrients. And then there was the openness of the Millennial generation to search out better ways to live,” she added. “It’s a no-brainer to begin to incorporate insects into our diet as a protein source.”她列举驱动人们对这种全新食物类别产生兴趣的力量,“当时的环境,对更多营养物质的需要,还有就是千禧一代在搜寻更好生活方式时抱有的开放心态,”她补充说。“在这些因素的推动下,人们开始不假思索地把昆虫作为一种蛋白质来源融入我们的饮食。”But while Dunkel predicts that shoppers in the next few years could find bags of frozen moth larvae next to the frozen shrimp, others, including the FAO, are more cautious. They say consumer products will remain a “niche market” for at least another generation, mostly attracting thrill-seeking Westerners as well as immigrant communities in the West pining for traditional insect favorites like grasshoppers from Mexico or Mopane worms from southern Africa.不过,虽然邓克尔预测称,在未来几年,冷冻蛾幼虫将与冷冻虾一道出现在消费者的购物袋之中,但其他人,包括联合国粮农组织,都比较谨慎。他们表示,至少对下一代人来说,昆虫消费类产品将依然是一个“缝隙市场”,其主要受众是寻求刺激的西方人,以及西方国家中渴望享受墨西哥蚱蜢或南部非洲可乐豆木蠕虫等传统昆虫美食的移民社区。The FAO’s Paul Vantomme, who coordinates the agency’s insect program, says he thinks the greatest potential is in the animal feed sector, noting that insects could represent up to 10 percent of the 150 million tons of protein sold each year in two decades. The insects would replace fishmeal and supplement soybean meal, Vantomme said.负责协调粮农组织昆虫项目的联合国官员保罗o旺托姆表示,他认为最大的潜力将是动物饲料领域。他指出,在未来20年每年售出的大约1,500万吨蛋白质中,昆虫的占比有望达到10%。在他看来,昆虫将取代鱼粉,还将成为大豆粉的补充。“China imports 30 million tons of soybean meal in order to supply its chicken and pig farms,” Vantomme says. “The average Chinese eats meat once a week, and that is expected to double in the next five years. That means they will be importing 60 million tons. Even China is looking for alternatives for these imports. For them, it’s a big problem.”“为了满足养鸡场和养猪场的需要,中国每年进口大约3,000万吨大豆粉,”旺托姆说。“中国老百姓通常一周吃一次肉,他们的肉食需求预计将在未来5年翻一番。这意味着,他们将进口6,000万吨。就连中国也开始为这些进口饲料寻找替代品。对他们来说,这是一个大问题。”EnviroFlight’sCourtright also says he expects the animal feed sector to offer the most potential for investors. “For animal feed, definitely. For human feed, I don’t think the West is y,” Courtright says. “We’re not that hungry yet. We are not starving and insects are not part of our culture.”此外,EnviroFlight公司的考特赖特表示,他预计饲料行业将成为最有潜力吸引投资的领域。“对于饲料产业来说,肯定如此。但我不认为西方公众已经做好了食用昆虫的准备,”考特赖特说。“我们还没有饿到那份上。我们目前还没有体会到挨饿的滋味,也不具备吃昆虫的文化传统。”Some of that trepidation was on display the other day at Fortune when several reporters said they were scared to even try samples of the Chapur coconut, ginger and lime or the peanut butter and chocolate bar. Much of the apprehension came from expecting to bite into a cricket, as famously seen on the TV show Fear Factor, although the bars have no visible cricket parts and lack the woodsy flavor of chirping insects. The taste and consistency are closer to a chocolate or tropical power bar.前几天,就在《财富》(Fortune) 杂志社,当几位记者绘声绘色地描述他们颤颤巍巍地品尝Chapul椰子、姜汁、酸橙或花生酱和巧克力棒样品的经历时,有好几位编辑都露出了惊恐万分的表情。其中很大一部分忧虑恐怕跟有可能咬到一只蟋蟀有关——就像他们在电视节目《谁敢来挑战》(Fear Factor)中看到的那个著名场景——尽管这些能量棒看不到明显的蟋蟀痕迹,也缺乏这种吱吱叫的昆虫身上特有的那股木香味。这些食物的口味和一致性更接近于巧克力或热带棒状食品。A few blocks away, the bars were on sale at midtown Manhattan’s Westerly Natural Market natural foods store. Positioned alongside a protein bar featuring Chia seeds and another one claiming to save lives with each sale, staffers said the Chapul cricket bars were selling mostly to “hard-core” customers trying to tap into the latest health food trends. Sales have been slow due to limited marketing and the foreign concept of edible insects, they said.几个街区之外,在曼哈顿中城的西风自然市场 (Westerly Natural Market),有不少天然食品商店正在销售这些棒状食品。其中有一款蛋白质棒包含野鼠尾草籽,和另一种据称每销售一笔就能拯救许多生命的草籽。站在一旁的销售人员表示,Chapul蟋蟀棒主要卖给了那些尝试着迎合最新保健食品趋势的“死忠”顾客。由于市场营销活动有限,再加上公众对食用昆虫的概念还非常陌生,这些产品的销售一直非常迟缓,他们说。For his part, Chapul’s Crowley has grown accustomed to the naysayers and acknowledges he still has work to do to help consumers overcome their fears of eating products like his with insects. But he believes his company has plenty of room to grow, predicting that it could see million in revenue in 2015 and more than million in five years.不过,对于各种反调,克劳利早已习以为常,并且承认在帮助消费者克对昆虫食品的恐惧方面,他依然需要做大量工作。但克劳利相信他的公司有足够大的成长空间,他预计公司营收将在2015年达到100万美元,并且将在五年内突破1,000 万美元大关。“I have no doubt that the industry will continue to grow,” Crowley says, noting that he expects Chapul to be in 10,000 stores in five years. “We need to diversify our food system,” he says. “We are not trying to eliminate food sources. We are just trying to add insects to the of the American diet.”克劳利说,“这个行业将继续增长,我对此坚信不疑。”他预计Chapul将在五年内进入1万家商店。“我们需要丰富我们的食品系统,”他说。“我们不是在尝试着消除食物来源。我们仅仅是想把昆虫添加到人们的饮食菜单之中。” /201407/315747上饶韩美整形整形中心上饶市立医院做隆鼻手术多少钱

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