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来源:美常识    发布时间:2018年02月23日 12:12:31    编辑:admin         

Books and Arts;Amazon worldwide bestsellers文艺;亚马逊全球畅销书Peddling wisdom营销智慧Making money out of the crisis 在金融危机中赚钱A marthian landing on Earth could learn a lot about the current state of the world mind simply by ing some of the book titles that appear on the bestseller tables.一个登陆地球的火星人,只要浏览一下畅销书榜上的一些书名,就足以知道如今地球在关注哪些事情。Judging by those listed below, the most popular writing on the financial crisis is about ambition, greed, corruption, debt, lean times, saving money and protecting yourself against financial folly and economic Armageddon. Some of the books are new; “Reckless Endangerment” by Gretchen Morgenson and Joshua Rosner (see article) shot to the top of the heap when it was published earlier this year. Others are older, and some are much older; Cassandra, remember, was an ancient Greek.从下表可以得知,与经济危机有关的最受欢迎的题材是野心、贪婪、腐败、债务、低迷期、储蓄以及在经济低迷期与经济大战期间如何自卫等。其中有些书比较新:今年早期出版的由Gretchen Morgenson以及Joshua Rosner所合著的《Reckless Endangerment》(见文章)跃居畅销榜榜首。有些书比较旧,还有一些更旧——印象中Cassandra好像是一名古希腊人。“The Richest Man in Babylon”, now ranked tenth, began in 1926 as a series of pamphlets distributed by banks and insurance companies. They used parables to illustrate such financial axioms as “Live on less than you earn” or “Make your gold work for you” and were updated in 2004, with modern English instead of the old-fashioned King James kind. How about this one, Mr Martian: better a little caution than a great regret.1926由和保险公司联合发型的一系列名为《巴比伦王国最富有的人》(“The Richest Man in Babylon”)的小册子如今排行第十。他们以寓言的形式阐述了类似“挣得多,花得少”或者“为自己找一份黄金工作”等金融定理。该系列书籍在2004年得到更新出版,用现代英语代替了国王詹姆斯的古英语。下面这本如何:《火星人:一步谨慎,百步不悔》 /201208/196039。

Carnivorous Bees蜜蜂也吃肉?I guess you never heard of Trigona hypogea, a South American bee that not only collects meat from animal carcasses, but has more recently been discovered to have a taste for live prey as well.你也许从未听过一种南美洲的蜜蜂,它们不仅吃动物尸体,而且最近科学家发现它们还喜欢吃活的动物。Scientists have seen the bees swiftly raid recently abandoned wasp nests, carrying off wasp eggs, larvae, and pupae until the nest is empty. They’ve observed the bees collecting toad eggs too.蜜蜂迅速地袭击被遗弃的蜂窝,拿走蜂卵,幼虫和蛹,把蜂巢搬空。科学家们观察发现蜜蜂还会收集蟾蜍卵。All developing, young bees need protein. Pollen is actually very rich in protein. The adults of most bee species feed predominantly on nectar and save the pollen for their younger colony members. These South American bees simply require a different source of protein. Their anatomy reflects their different eating habits.所有的小蜜蜂都需要蛋白质。花粉是蛋白质含量很高。大多数的成年蜜蜂主要以花蜜为生,并且将花粉留给幼蜂。这些南美蜜蜂只是需要不同的蛋白质出处。解剖学反应出它们不同的饮食习惯。The leg modifications that enable most bee species to transport pollen are largely diminished on these bees. Their mouthparts are sharper, sort of tooth-like.蜜蜂腿上那些能帮助它们运输花粉的装饰物在这些南美洲蜜蜂上大部分已经消失了。它们的口器变得更锋利,有点像牙齿。The bees prepare the meat for later consumption by the younger members of the colony by chewing it and then mixing it with sugary liquids, perhaps collected from fruit. Microbes break the mixture down into a viscous goo, which delivers important nutrients to the young bees.蜜蜂为幼蜂准备的肉是通过咀嚼,然后将肉与含糖的液体,大概是从水果中提取的。微生物将混合物分解成一种粘稠物,这种粘稠物将重要的营养输送给幼蜂。 /201209/198239。

Still in Books and Arts; Book Review;Foreign interventions;When to hold and when to fold;文艺;书评;来自外国的干扰;来自外国的干扰究竟该如何进退;Can Intervention Work? By Rory Stewart and Gerald Knaus.《干预有用吗?》Rory Steward, Gerald Knaus合著。Can we intervene in foreign countries and do good? Can we stop wars and genocides and get rid of evil dictators? Can we then build modern, democratic states that thrive in our wake? The answer depends on who you ask. An anti-Qaddafi Libyan will have nice things to say about NATOs role there right now. But you will get very different views from an Afghan, an Iraqi, a Bosnian or a Kosovar.我们有权干预外国吗?我们的干预真的有利吗?我们能够阻止战争和屠杀吗?我们能够消灭掉那些邪恶的独裁者吗?我们能够激发他们的斗志,促使他们建造一个现代的民主国家吗?这些因人而异。谈起北约在推翻其政权中起到的重要作用,一个反对利比亚卡扎菲政权的人立即就滔滔不绝。但是如果你问一个阿富汗人,伊拉克人,波斯尼亚或是科索沃人,得到的就会大不相同。Rory Stewart and Gerald Knaus are well placed to pose and answer these questions. Before Mr Stewart became a Conservative MP, he was a deputy governor of two Iraqi provinces. He also walked across Afghanistan and wrote a bestseller about the experience. Mr Knaus, a political economist, runs the European Stability Initiative, a Berlin-based think-tank founded in Sarajevo in 1999, which has been particularly influential in the Balkans.Rory Stewart 和 Gerald Knaus根据自身的经历,给出了合宜的。在Stewart成为一个保守党议员之前,他曾担任过伊拉克两个省的省长。他还曾横穿阿富汗,将自己的经历写成了书,并成为了畅销书。Knaus则是一名政治经济学家,他管理一家位于柏林的智库,叫作欧洲稳定计划。其于1999年创建于萨拉热窝,在巴尔干半岛各国特别有影响力。The book is structured as two essays with a lengthy joint introduction. Mr Stewart has written a colourful account of his time in Afghanistan and his failed attempts to stop what he sees as a self- defeating build-up of ambitions, troops and plans. He skewers gobbledygook notions of bringing Afghans accountable governance and Western-style rule of law. It is not that he is against such things, but that he doubts the ability of foreigners to impose it all. He cites a pragmatic admonition from English Mountain Rescue: “Be prepared to turn back if conditions turn against you.”本书由2片论文及一篇很长的合序构成。Stewart描绘了他在阿富汗时多姿多的生活,也写了他对阿富汗一系列的雄心壮志,军队的建立以及计划的制定的看法,认为这都是自拆台脚,他想要阻止却未能成功。他竭力讥讽那些官腔,说什么建立一个可信赖的阿富汗政府,引进西方式法治。他并不是反对这些做法,而是质疑外国人的执行力。他在此引用了英国高山救援队的一条朴实的警告;“如情况不利,请准备回程。”Writing about Bosnia, Mr Knaus deploys heavy artillery in arguments that he has made before. Intervention there has been a stunning success, he says, given the state of Bosnia at the end of its devastating war in 1995. Hundreds of thousands of refugees have returned, not a single intervening soldier was killed (after the war), and todays problems are of the conventional political sort, not the kind that herald another war. Not only does Bosnia enjoy free and fair elections, but also it has relatively little crime. Mr Knaus argues that the only missteps came from assumptions held by those like Lord Ashdown, when he was de facto governor of Bosnia, that well-meaning envoys could behave like imperial viceroys, sacking elected yet obstructive leaders at will.谈到波斯尼亚时,Knaus大量引用了他之前发表的观点,火力十足。鉴于那场1995年波斯尼亚发生的残酷的战争的结局,干预确实取得了惊人的成功,他说。成百上千的难民都回归故土,且没有一个外来士兵死于战后重建工作中。但是今天的问题是常规政治,并非预示着另一场战争的那种。不仅波斯尼亚有了公平自由的选举,而且犯罪也相对减少。Knaus认为,唯一的错处在于阿什当勋爵等人的错误假设。阿什当勋爵为波西尼亚实际领导人时,满怀善意的使者却能像帝国总督那样,任意将选举出来却碍手碍脚的领导人撤职。From rather successful interventions, defined as Bosnia and Kosovo, the authors convey an important lesson: that is, the experience garnered in one place is generally not much use elsewhere. Bosnia was a success because the intervention came as part of the 1995 Dayton peace agreement, which ended the war and which all the exhausted sides committed themselves to. In Kosovo the vast majority of its people—ethnic Albanians, nearly all of them Muslims—were very grateful for what they saw as their America-led liberation from the Serbs. Mr Knaus also argues that the ed Nations war-crimes tribunal was vital as a form of closure and for removing from the political scene characters such as Ratko Mladic, a Bosnian Serb general now on trial for genocide in The Hague.从波斯尼亚、科索沃等干预的成功案例中,作者得出了一个重要的结论,那就是,从一处获得的经验多数时候在其他地方并不管用。波斯尼亚干预的成功是因对其干预是作为1995年代顿和平协议中的一部分提出的,协议旨在结束战争,而精疲力竭的双方也都愿意遵守。而在科索沃,大多数国民为阿尔巴尼亚人,几乎所有人都是穆斯林,他们十分感激美国领导他们从塞尔维亚人手中解放。Knaus还谈到,联合国军事法庭对于消灭拉特科·穆拉迪克这样的人至关重要。Ratko Mladic是波斯尼亚的塞尔维亚将军,如今因涉嫌种族灭绝而在海牙国家法庭受审。So, does intervention work? As any Bosnian peasant may tell you, “maybe yes, maybe no.” It depends on the circumstances and requires modest ambitions. Muddle through with a sense of purpose, says Mr Knaus. Do what you can, where you can and no more, agrees Mr Stewart. In policy terms that sounds a bit like “yes” to Libya, “no” to Syria and so on.那么,干预究竟是否有用呢?随便哪个波斯尼亚的农民都会这样告诉你,“可能有用吧,也可能没用。”它取决于现实情况,并且人们的目标也要合理。有目标地混日子,Knaus如是说道。你想做就做,能做就做,没别的了,Stewart以此表示赞成。从政策的角度来看,这似乎是在对利比亚称好,对叙利亚摇头之类的。 /201304/233170。

Books and Arts; Book Review;New fiction;Rings of truth;文艺;书评;新小说;真实的故事;Gold. By Chris Cleave.《赤子之心》,克瑞斯·克里夫著。Novels about sport are notoriously hard to pull off. It seems somewhat odd for a literary mind to care how often a ball makes it to the back of the net or how long it takes to sprint down a track. Yet that need not be so. The classic quest narrative—in which an individual overcomes obstacles to achieve a goal—could be a template for any single match or sporting career. “Gold”, Chris Cleaves third novel, is a skilful demonstration of the form.写一部关于体育运动的小说,显然是有难度的。让文学去关注一粒球怎样入网,冲刺终点需要多长时间,看起来多少有点奇怪。然而,事实也不尽然。古典文学所追求的叙述方式往往是一个从克障碍到实现目标的过程。这其实和任何一场单独的比赛或者体育项目的逻辑是一致的。《赤子之心》——克里夫的第三本小说,正是这种叙述方式的巧妙呈现。This is the story of Zoe, Kate and Jack, three obsessive race cyclists who meet as young hopefuls. There is bike geekery and Lycra aplenty. As the title suggests, Mr Cleave even dares to set his story around the Olympics, the ultimate sporting circus. Yet this is no niche book for aficionados looking for a brief summer distraction.书中讲述了三个人的故事:若伊、凯特和杰克——三个狂热的自行车车手,年轻有为,志同道合。故事里有高水准的自行车“极客”。正如题目所暗示的,克里夫甚至刻意让故事游离在奥运会——那终极的竞技场的边缘。但是,此书也绝对不是为了在炎夏给体育迷们提供一份短暂的消遣。Instead, cycling is the backdrop for a deeper exploration of the struggle between the physical and the psychological. Into the love triangle and professional exertions Mr Cleave throws eight-year-old Sophie, diagnosed with leukaemia only days before the Olympics and fighting a different type of battle to the finish.相反,自行车运动化为了背景。小说在这背景上深入探讨了灵与肉的挣扎。除了三角恋、职业上的进取,克里夫还讲述了苏菲的故事:一个年仅8岁的孩子,在奥林匹克运动会开幕前被诊断出白血病,在生命的尽头处,打了一场特殊的生死之战。At times the book seems slightly sentimental. Sophie and Kate are a little too good to be true; Zoe a bit too deranged and calculating. Yet “Gold” works as a novel because Mr Cleave manages to make the er care about what it takes to win—or even to take part.书中,有些地方的行文会略显情绪化。苏菲和凯特美好得不真实;若伊则又太神经兮兮且斤斤计较。然而,《赤子之心》之成其为小说,在于克里夫将读者的关注点,引向夺冠前的征程,或者说整个参赛的过程,和夺冠与否无关。The small details speak loudly. As the story opens, Zoe stands terrified as 5,000 people chant her name—yet she is equally frightened that one day they may stop. On another occasion she lingers and stares at Kates bike before a race and implants the idea that something could be wrong; she wins the mental advantage, and the quicker start. By such tiny glances and irrecoverable moments lives are changed, a lesson that reaches beyond sport. The moment of winning a gold medal, by contrast, can almost seem disappointing.小细节里有大蕴义。譬如小说开场,5000名观众反复喊着若伊的名字,这让站在台上的她紧张极了;然而若有一天人们不再这么做,她同样会害怕。另外一个场景,在一场比赛开始前,若伊故意徘徊着,盯住凯特的自行车,让对方觉得自己的车子出了毛病。于是她赢得了心理上的优势,在起点上抢占了先机。但是这种伎俩和自私的光景被某种高于体育的精神改变了。相形之下,夺取金牌的时刻,几乎让人沮丧。Mr Cleave knows what makes a good story. Here, his concern is not with macho physicality or crossing a line, but with the endless and enduring human endeavours: love, death and what is left when hopes and dreams are crushed or fulfilled. A book to savour long after the Olympic games are over.克里夫懂得如何把故事讲得精。在书中,他关心的不是体魄的强壮或某一次的胜利,而是无休止的人类的奋斗:爱情,死亡,以及在希望和梦想或破灭或兑现之后,我们的人生还剩下些什么。这样一本书,适合奥林匹克运动会结束后细细品味。 /201212/212386。

Business商业News Corporations travails新闻集团的阵痛Rising Sun, setting son《太阳报》冉冉升起,太子爷黯然退场James Murdoch quits the newspaper business. Will News Corp too?詹姆斯.默多克不再插手报纸行业,新闻集团会停止该业务吗?WHETHER James Murdoch can ever succeed his father, Rupert, at the helm of News Corporation after resigning on February 29th as head of its scandal-ridden newspaper arm, News International, is not clear.2月29日,詹姆斯辞去了深陷丑闻的新闻国际公司首席运营官一职。他是否能继承他的父亲,鲁伯特.默多克成为新闻集团,即新闻国际公司的母公司的掌舵人,目前还尚不清楚。The firm, of course, is depicting the change as almost trivial: he will still be deputy chief operating officer of News Corp and overseer of its international businesses,新闻集团称这次只是一个小小的人事变动:他将仍然是新闻集团的副首席运营官以及其国际业务的监督人。and it was first announced nearly a year ago that he would move to New York.况且,早在近一年以前,已经有消息称他要搬到纽约。In theory he can now make a fresh start: one of his main responsibilities will be pay television, a business in which he did well before taking over the newspapers in 2007, the move that marked him as heir apparent.理论上,他现在可以重新来过:他将主要打理收费电视业务,在2007年接管新闻国际公司之前,他把这个业务搞得有声有色,人们因其接管了新闻国际公司而认为他是默克多最有可能的继承人。And he will be insulated from the poisonous atmosphere in London, where it was confirmed this week that the victims of phone-hacking by News of the World (NOW) journalists included none other than Mr Murdochs disgraced former sidekick,他还可以避开在伦敦的压抑气氛。伦敦本周确认,《世界新闻报》记者窃听事件的受害人(注:这里可能是villain;的笔误,布鲁克斯应该是指使这次丑闻的人之一)居然还包括默多克不光的前任下属兼密友丽贝卡.布鲁克斯(Rebekah Brooks)。Rebekah Brooks, who at the time was editor of NOWs stablemate, the Sun.她当时是《太阳报》的编辑。《太阳报》与《世界新闻报》同属新闻集团。All the same, James Murdoch will be remembered as the man who closed Britains biggest Sunday paper and claimed not to have known how deep the rot was despite warnings from underlings.尽管如此,詹姆斯.默多克被记得最多的将是,他关闭了英国最大的周日报,并且宣称他本人并不知道该报有多腐败,虽然下属曾经提醒过他。When Rupert Murdoch appeared in London in February to launch the Sun on Sunday, it was without James but with his elder son, Lachlan, prompting speculation that the latter, formerly out of favour, is back in the running to take over.2月10号,鲁伯特.默多克到伦敦筹办《星期日太阳报》办报事宜,陪伴一旁的是他的大儿子拉克兰,而不是次子詹姆斯。这引起了人们的猜想:一度失宠的后者如今又将重新加入到新闻集团的继承权之争中。Rupert Murdoch may be in the habit of anointing his successors with printing ink,鲁伯特.默多克或许习惯于让报刊业为他的接班人镀金。but to the markets his newspapers matter little.但是,他的报刊业务在他所有的市场中所占的份额根本是无足轻重。In 2010, the last year News Corp reported earnings separately for the papers (plus some online-information services), they brought in less than a fifth of the companys revenue and only an eighth of its profits.2010年,也就是新闻集团单独公布报纸盈利(包括一些网络务的盈利)的最后一年,所公布的收入还不足新闻集团盈利的五分之一,其利润也仅仅占了八分之一。Investors welcomed the seventh-day Sun, which should win back some of NOWs lost ers, but in general they see newspapers as an ;asset-intensive, slow-growth, marginally profitable business;, says Todd Juenger of Sanford C. Bernstein, an investment bank.来自桑福德伯恩斯坦(Sanford C. Bernstein)投资的托德.容格(Todd Juenger)说,投资者青睐《星期日太阳报》,这应该有助于集团挽回一些《世界新闻报》流失的读者。但是一般而言,他们认为报业是一个;资产密集型,增长缓慢,盈利极小的行业;。Though its shares are at a four-year high the firm is still widely reckoned to be undervalued.虽然新闻集团的股价达到了四年来最高的水平,但是很多人都估计,该集团的价值被低估了。They even rose slightly the day James Murdoch resigned, and the day after his boss, Chase Carey, the chief operating officer, acknowledged at a conference that executives had discussed selling the newspaper business.甚至在詹姆斯.默多克辞职当天,股票还轻微上涨了;还有他的上司,首席运营官切斯?凯里(Chase Carey)在一次会议中实高管们曾经讨论要把报纸相关的业务卖出去的那一天,股票也上涨了。That may mean investors think the papers eventual sale is now more likely, or that the hacking affair has taken its last senior scalp, or both.股票上涨可能意味着投资者认为,集团旗下的报纸现在将很有可能被卖出去,又或者是窃听事件已经告一段落,又或者是两者兼有。But celebrating either would be premature. It would be hard to get a good price for the tainted News International, Mr Juenger points out,但是,容格指出,现在就要庆祝以上两件事任何一件都还为时过早,如今想要声名狼藉的新闻国际公司卖个好价钱,并不容易。and any buyer would probably insist that News Corp indemnify it against the effects of possible future revelations.况且任何买家可能都会坚持要求新闻集团为报纸将来可能受到的指控负责任。And if the investigation in Britain finds evidence of bribery, News Corp could face stiff fines in America under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and more heads could roll.如果英国的调查小组发现有关贿赂的据,根据美国的《反海外腐败法》,新闻集团很有可能面临巨额赔款,还将有更多的人受到影响。Even if James Murdoch can redeem himself, likely rivals for the top job will include not just his siblings but also Mr Carey, widely seen as one of the most competent media executives in America.即使詹姆斯.默多克能够挽回自己的声誉,跟其竞争总裁这一职位的潜在对手除了他的兄长和,还有凯里,后者被认为是美国最有能力的媒体管理者之一。But he has time yet. And a News Corp without newspapers might be the perfect company for him.但是他还有时间。如果新闻集团停止有关报刊的业务,对他来说才是最好的。 /201211/207627。