盐城/市人流哪家好QQ大夫
时间:2017年12月12日 06:55:43

Many of us think we are harder working, more intelligent and better drivers than the average person. 我们当中有很多人认为自己比一般人更努力、更聪明而且驾驶技术更娴熟。We also think we are morally superior. 我们还认为,自己在道德上更胜一筹。A 2014 study found that even convicted prisoners thought they were morally better — not just than the average prisoner but than the average person outside.2014年的一项研究发现,就连被判有罪的囚犯都认为自己在道德上更优秀,不仅好于一般的囚犯,还超过监狱外的一般人。The study, at a prison in the south of England, asked inmates to rate themselves against the average prisoner and the average member of the community for traits such as morality, kindness, honesty, self-control and being law-abiding.这项研究是在英格兰南部的一所监狱展开的,它请囚犯们在道德、善良、诚实、自控和遵纪守法等特质方面,把自己与普通囚犯和普通社区成员进行比较。Although the convicts were serving sentences for violence, robbery, drug offences and burglary, they rated themselves as virtuous. 尽管这些罪犯正因暴力、抢劫、吸毒和盗窃刑,但他们认为自己是品行端正的。Only on one trait did they think they were not superior to the average non-prisoner: being law-abiding. 他们只在一种特质上不认为自己优于那些没有犯法的普通人:遵纪守法。They felt they and people outside were equally law-abiding.他们认为,自己和监狱外的人一样守法。Now a new study in the Social Psychological and Personality Science journal has shown that people, this time in the non-prison population, think they are more just and virtuous than average. 现在,《社会心理和人格科学》(Social Psychological and Personality Science)期刊发表的一项新研究显示,人们(这次是监狱外的人群)认为,他们比一般人更公正和品德高尚。But it goes on to pose an interesting question: can people’s sense of moral superiority lead them to behave dishonestly?但这篇论文接着提出了一个有趣的问题:人们的道德优越感会不会导致他们做出不诚实的行为?The researchers, Ben Tappin and Ryan McKay of Royal Holloway, University of London, say previous studies provide competing answers on this issue. 伦敦大学(University of London)皇家霍洛威学院(Royal Holloway)的研究员本.塔平(Ben Tappin)和瑞恩.麦凯(Ryan McKay)表示,之前的研究就这个问题给出了相互对立的。Some research has found that the illusion of moral superiority can lead people to behave badly because, like the prisoners in the first study, they think they really are, deep down, good people. 一些研究发现,道德优越感的幻觉可能导致人们做出糟糕的行为,因为与第一项研究中的囚犯一样,他们认为,自己在内心深处真的是好人。Other research shows that to the extent that people value belief-behaviour consistency, people who think they are honest behave honestly.还有一些研究表明,从人们重视言行一致的角度来说,那些认为自己诚实的人会做出诚实的行为。We defer to future research to test these hypotheses, the Royal Holloway study says. 皇家霍洛威学院的研究称:我们交给未来的研究来测试这些假说。I was, however, struck by the first hypothesis because I thought it might explain a puzzle: why do companies that believe themselves to be ethically virtuous find themselves doing unvirtuous things?然而,第一种假说让我印象深刻,因为我认为,它或许可以解释一个谜题:为什么认为自己注重道德的企业,会发现自己做着不高尚的事情?Two examples are the banks HS and Wells Fargo, which have both found themselves in trouble. 两个例子是汇丰(HS)和富国(Wells Fargo),它们都发现自己陷入了麻烦。Last year, HS confessed that the tax evasion scandal at its Swiss private banking arm was a source of shame. 去年,汇丰坦承,其瑞士私人的逃税丑闻是羞耻之源。The scandal was all the more striking because Stephen Green, HS’s previous boss, had written a book called Good Value: Reflections on Money, Morality and an Uncertain World.这桩丑闻更加引人关注的原因是汇丰前任首席执行官葛霖(Stephen Green,见上图)曾写过一本名为《优秀价值观:反思金钱、道德和不确定世界》(Good Value: Reflections on Money, Morality and an Uncertain World)的著作。Wells Fargo admitted this year that its staff had tried to meet their sales targets by setting up accounts for customers without their consent. 富国今年承认,其员工曾试图在客户不知情的情况下为客户开立账户,以达到自己的销售目标。Warren Buffett, head of Berkshire Hathaway, Wells Fargo’s biggest shareholder, described it as a great bank that made a terrible mistake.富国最大股东伯克希尔哈撒韦公司(Berkshire Hathaway)掌门人沃伦.巴菲特(Warren Buffett)称其为一家犯下严重错误的伟大。There are possible explanations for these falls from grace. 这些堕落故事可能有一些合乎情理的解释。HS had acquired its Swiss bank and said it had not integrated it properly. 汇丰收购了其瑞士,但该行表示没有整合好。Wells Fargo appeared to be a classic case of financial incentives distorting employees’ behaviour.富国似乎是金钱激励扭曲员工行为的典型案例。But I wondered about the better than average research cited above. 但上面提到的好于一般人的研究让我感到好奇。Could the illusion of moral superiority apply to organisations as well as individuals? And could companies believe they were so superior morally that the occasional lapse into immorality did not matter much? The Royal Holloway researchers said they had recently conducted experiments examining just these issues and were preparing to publish the results. 道德优越感的幻觉是否既适用于个人也适用于公司?公司是否有可能认为,自己在道德上优于其他企业,因此偶尔的故态复萌并不重要?皇家霍洛威学院的研究人员表示,他们最近做了一些实验,考察了这些问题,并准备发表结果。They had found that political groups with a sense of moral superiority felt justified in behaving aggressively towards opponents. 他们发现,具有道德优越感的政治集团认为自己有理由对对手做出咄咄逼人的行为。In experiments, this meant denying them a monetary benefit.在实验中,这意味着不让对手获得金钱利益。It isn’t difficult to imagine a similar scenario arising in a competitive organisational context. 在竞争性的组织背景下想象一副类似的场景并不困难。To the extent that employees may perceive their organisation to be morally superior to other organisations, they might feel licensed to ‘cut corners’ or behave somewhat unethically — for example, to give their organisation a competitive edge.就员工可能认为自己所在公司在道德上优于其他公司而言,他们可能认为自己有权‘走捷径’或做出某种不道德行为,例如,为了让自己的公司获得一种竞争优势。These behaviours may be perceived as justified#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;or even ethical, insofar as they promote the goals of their morally superior organisation, they told me.这些研究人员告诉我:这些行为可能被视为合情合理……甚至合乎道德,因为这些行为有利于实现他们所在的道德优越公司的目标。In explaining its behaviour, HS suggested that inquiring too closely into its customers’ tax affairs might have led to them taking their business elsewhere. 汇丰在解释其行为时暗示,过多地询问其客户的税收事宜可能会让客户把业务转往其他。The Wells Fargo incentives were originally put in place to drive the opening of new accounts, which would have given the bank an advantage over its competitors.富国的激励举措最初是为了推动开设新账户,这原本会赋予该行相对于竞争对手的优势。What both cases show is that the illusion of moral superiority can be dangerous. 这两个案例表明,道德优越感的幻觉可能是危险的。A company that believes it embodies ethical virtue can develop blindness to its lapses. 认为自己体现高尚道德的公司,可能会无视其过失。It can begin to think that, as it is a force for good in the world, anything that it does to advance itself must be good, too.它可能会开始认为,既然自己是世界上的仁义力量,任何增进自己利益的行为都必定是善举。When it emerges that outsiders, or regulators, do not see it that way, the institutions and their supporters often conclude that this is a rare deviation from goodness. 当外部人士或监管者不这么认为时,这些公司及其持者往往会总结称,那是罕见的偏离善举的行为。It may be, but the damage can be far-reaching and long-lasting. 或许是这样,但其损害可能是深远和长久的。Maintaining a corporate reputation is a daily task, however virtuous you think you are.维护公司的声誉是一项日常任务,不管你认为它的品德有多么高尚。 /201612/481600

Beijing’s new mayor has vowed to gut the city of all functions unrelated to its status as national capital, in an effort to push the growing population into the surrounding provinces.北京新任市长蔡奇承诺疏解北京所有的非首都功能,努力把不断增长的人口疏散到周围省份。The city’s functions would be reduced “like peeling off cabbage leaves”, with the economy and cityscape restructured to make it “leaner and more efficient”, Cai Qi said.蔡奇表示,将减少北京市的功能,就像剥掉“白菜帮子”一样,优化北京市的经济结构和空间结构,“瘦身健体、提质增效”。Asian states have historically moved capitals when they have become too crowded and have depleted local resources. Most recently, Myanmar and Kazakhstan have built new capitals from scratch, moving the government away from historic commercial cities that were the traditional centres of power. But Mr Cai, a rising political star, may be the first to seek to move the city away from the capital.从历史上说,亚洲国家在首都变得过于拥挤并耗尽当地资源时会迁都。不久前,缅甸和哈萨克斯坦都从零开始建起了新首都,把政府迁出了曾是传统权力中心的历史悠久的商业城市。但冉冉升起的政治新星蔡奇可能是第一个试图把城市迁出首都的人。Beijing has been the Chinese capital and a centre of power and culture for most of the past 750 years. It was founded as a walled city in the 11th century on a well-watered plain. After serving for centuries as a military garrison and capital of several independent states it first became the national capital in the 13th century AD during the Yuan dynasty, when Mongols ruled what is now China.在过去750年的多数时间里,北京都是中国的首都和权力与文化中心。它始建于公元前11世纪,最初是一座位于水源充沛的平原上的有围墙的城市。在若干个世纪里,它曾是一个军事重镇,先后作过几个小国的都城。在公元13世纪的元朝,北京首次成为全中国的首都,当时统治中国的是蒙古人。Its population expanded rapidly after the Communist party took power in 1949 and created the headquarters of a Leninist state. The population boomed again in the reform era, as relaxation of China’s strict hukou, or residency, regulations combined with a property bubble near the centre of power.中国共产党1949年夺取政权并在这里建立起一个列宁主义国家的大本营后,北京市人口迅速增加。在改革开放时代,北京市人口再次迅猛增长,当时中国严格的户口制度有所放松,而且在这个权力中心附近出现了房地产泡沫。Almost 22m people now live in Beijing or surrounding satellite cities, up from 4m in 1950 and 9m in 1980. Most of the ancient city’s unique architecture and distinct hutongs, or lanes, have been bulldozed to make way for highways, shopping malls, office buildings and state-owned banks and enterprises.如今有近2200万人居住在北京或周边的卫星城,而1950年为400万人,1980年为900万人。这座古老城市的许多独特建筑和别具一格的胡同被拆除,给高速公路、购物中心、办公楼以及国有和企业腾出地方。The result has been traffic jams, increasing strain on water resources, and rising public dissatisfaction with the city’s choking pollution.结果是交通堵塞、水资源日益紧张、公众对北京令人窒息的污染越来越感到不满。Mr Cai said he would reduce Beijing’s land zoned for construction and cap the city’s population at 23m.蔡奇表示,他将削减北京的建设用地,把常住人口控制在2300万人以下。Administrative action could temporarily reduce the city’s population, says Dai Qing, an environmental activist who has long argued that Beijing’s growth is dangerously depleting its underground aquifers. “But if you don’t restructure the system whereby interests and resources are concentrated in the capital, people will come flooding back in.”环保活动人士戴晴早就指出,北京的发展正在危险地耗尽该市的地下水资源。她表示,行政措施可能会临时降低北京的人口。“但如果你不调整这个利益和资源集中于首都的体制的结构,人们还会如潮水般涌回来。”Mr Cai’s announcement is a twist on central government plans revealed in 2014 to shift some of the national bureaucracy to Baoding, a nearby military and industrial city that was denoted the nation’s most polluted that year.蔡奇的表态是中央政府2014年披露的将部分国家机关迁到保定的计划的一个变化版本。保定是邻近北京的一个军事和工业城市,是当年中国污染最严重的城市。Plans to develop the “Jing-Jin-Ji” area (a shorthand for Beijing, the port city of Tianjin and the surrounding province of Hebei) have resulted in economic stimulus and new property development across the region.发展“京津冀”地区的计划导致这一地区出台了经济刺激措施,进行了新的房地产开发。They have been accompanied by campaigns within Beijing to tear down neighbourhood shops and wholesale markets where migrant workers work, in an attempt to force lower-income residents out of the city. Schools have closed their doors to the children of migrants. The number of new migrants to Beijing halved in 2015.与此同时,北京市采取行动,拆除外来务工人员打工的小区商店和批发市场,以求迫使低收入居民离开这座城市。学校则拒绝招收外来务工人员子女入学。2015年,北京新增外来务工人员数量减少了一半。Areas that have been cleared would not see new construction, and would instead be turned into green and public space, Mr Cai vowed.蔡奇承诺,对于城区腾退后的空间不再建设,而是将其变成绿地,变成公共务设施。Beijing has also encouraged its universities to develop new campuses in satellite cities.北京还鼓励该市高校在卫星城发展新校区。Hollowing out the city may help Mr Cai in his December pledge to prevent property prices in Beijing from rising this year. On Monday he also vowed to cut coal use in the capital by 30 per cent. The city is phasing out its last coal-fired power plant in favour of a gas-fired plant. It aly sources much of its power from the smoke-shrouded city of Zhangjiakou, four hours’ drive to the north-west, which will host the Winter Olympics in 2022.蔡奇去年12月承诺北京房价今年不再上涨,疏解非首都功能可能有助于他兑现承诺。本周一,蔡奇还誓言要将北京煤炭使用量削减30%。北京正淘汰其最后一座燃煤电厂,建设燃气电厂。北京现在所用的许多电力已然由烟雾笼罩下的城市张家口提供。张家口位于北京西北方向,距北京车程4个小时,该市将在2022年承办冬季奥运会。 /201702/491015

People don#39;t often look back on the early 1900#39;s for advice, but what if we could actually learn something from the Lost Generation?通常人们不会为了求取生活妙方而去回顾20世纪初的年代,不过如果那个“垮掉的一代”真的能对我们有所助益呢?The New York Public Library has digitized 100 ;how to do it; cards found in cigarette boxes over 100 years ago, and the tips they give are so practical that millennials ing this might want to take notes.纽约公共图书馆将一组100多年前的香烟盒上的“生活妙招”卡片进行了数字化处理,这些卡片上的小贴士实在太实用了,二十一世纪的我们看到了也会多加留意!How to Light a Match in the Wind如何点燃风中的蜡烛The familiar difficulty of lighting a match in a wind can be to a great extent overcome if thin shavings are first cut on the match end, as shown in the picture.起风的时候想点燃一根蜡烛往往困难重重,按照图中所示的办法,点燃火柴之前在火柴末端刮出细小的木梢,就能很大程度上解决这个问题了!On lighting the match, the curled strips catch fire at once; the flame is stronger, and has a better chance.点燃火柴时,翘起来的木梢马上被点燃;火焰燃烧得更旺,燃烧的时间也更长。 /201705/509212


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