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盐城协和医院无痛人流多钱盐城男子射精快是什么原因Science and technology科学技术Dinosaur behaviour恐龙行为Headbangers疯狂撞头的家伙Evidence of duelling dinosaurs战斗性恐龙的据WORKING out how an extinct animal behaved when it was alive is tricky.对于灭绝的生物来说,要研究出它们存活时的行为是很棘手,But it is not always impossible,不过也不是完全不可能。as Joseph Peterson and Collin Dischler of the University of Wisconsin explained on October 17th to the Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology meeting held in Raleigh, North Carolina.10月17日,在北卡罗莱纳州罗利市举行的古脊椎动物学会议上,美国威斯康星大学的约瑟夫·彼得森和柯林·狄斯勒就对肿头龙的习性做出了一些解释。Pachycephalosaurs lived 65m years ago.肿头龙生活在6500万年前。As their name suggests, they had large, bony, domed heads.正如其名称所说,它们有巨大的、高隆的头骨。For years, it was assumed they used these to bash one another in the way that rams do now.多年来,人们一直认为肿头龙用头攻击同类,就像现在的公羊一样。Recently, though, a second suggestion has surfaced—that rather than for fighting, the domes were for show; the dinosaur equivalent of a peacocks tail.不过最近有人提出另外一个假设:它们的大脑袋不是为了战斗,而是出于展示的目的—作用相当于孔雀的尾巴。Dr Peterson and Dr Dischler put these two theories into a head-to-head competition.彼得森和狄斯勒士让这两种理论来了个头对头的正面对抗。To do so, they studied 102 pachycephalosaur skulls, of various species.为此,他们研究了102只不同品种肿头龙的头骨。They found that 23 of these skulls had pits in them, and that these pits were similar both to each other and to those found in the skulls of living animals that bash each other with their heads.他们发现其中23只头骨上有凹坑。这些凹坑彼此类似。而且现存的用头部撞击同类的动物中,头骨上的凹坑也与之类似。That supported the head-butting theory. The clincher, though, came when they created computerised models of pachycephalosaur skulls and mapped the damage from each of their pitted specimens on to these virtual skulls.这持了头部冲撞理论。不过决定性的据来自于他们用计算机模拟的肿头龙头骨。他们将每个有坑样本的损伤部位标注在虚拟的头骨上。When they did this, they found that the pits were clustered—exactly as might be expected if they were the result of animals deliberately aiming at each other.这样操作后,他们发现凹坑聚集分布,正如人们假设的那样:是肿头龙故意用头部攻击彼此的结果。Intriguingly, they found two patterns of clustering.有意思的是,他们发现凹坑有两种聚集图案。Those pachycephalosaurs with highly domed heads had pits on both the fronts and the backs of their skulls.那些不太隆起的头骨仅在前方有凹坑,而非常高隆的则前后都有。Those whose domes were lower had them only on the fronts.这明了两种肿头龙攻击时的不同。This suggests the two sorts of animal fought in different ways. Low-domes, it seems, simply charged at each other. High-domes did that too.相对低隆的一种似乎仅向对方迎头冲撞。But they also engaged in head-to-head wrestling of a sort that allowed them to get behind their opponentsskulls and do damage from the rear, in the way that modern bison do.非常高隆的肿头龙除此之外还会采取头对头式摔跤法:能够碰到对方头骨的背部,从后面对彼此造成损伤,好比如今的野牛。None of which proves that pachycephalosaurs did not strut their stuff with their domes as well, just as a stag will often show off its antlers before engaging in combat, in order to give a less well-endowed rival the opportunity to withdraw.然而,两种图案都没有否定肿头龙自豪地迈步时也在炫耀他们的大脑袋。成年雄鹿就经常在战斗之前展示它的鹿角,为了使天生劣势的对手借机撤退。But it does demonstrate that the domes were serious weapons, not mere fripperies of fashion.不过这确实明了高隆的头骨是很厉害的武器,而不仅仅是时髦的矫饰品。 /201401/272690滨海县药流哪家医院最好的 Like many midwesterners, it turns out that giant African landsnails really love Florida.体型巨大的非洲陆生蜗牛同许多生活在中西部地区的动物一样大爱美国弗罗里达州。Unfortunately, giant African Land Snails are some of the worlds most destructive snails.但不幸的是,他们的破坏性在世界上数一数二。They cangrow to be eight inches long-as big as rats-and to weigh more than one pound.他们有8英寸长,和老鼠一般大小,重达一磅还多。Theyre sohuge, in fact, that their shells have been known to blow out tires.他们是那样的大,事实上,他们的壳能扎破轮胎,这一点远近闻名。The real trouble is that these snails reproduce very quickly.真正的麻烦在于这种蜗牛繁衍速度极快。Under optimal conditions-such aswarm, tropical Florida-one snail can lay up to a thousand or so eggs a year.真正的麻烦在于这种蜗牛繁衍速度极快。And these snailstypical life span is three to five years, with some living as long as nine years.而一般这种蜗牛的寿命是3到5年,一些甚至可以存活9年之久。Unlike most snails, giant African land snails dont just eat decaying organic matter or leaf molds;they eat the plants themselves, so they pose a huge threat to agriculture, one of Floridas mainindustries.同大多数蜗牛不同,这种蜗牛不吃腐败的有机质食物,也不吃叶霉。他们吃植物本身,如此一来,对主要产业为农业的弗罗里达州来说,他们会构成巨大的威胁。Whats more, theyre not picky.此外,他们可一点也不挑食。They eat over five hundred species of plants, and somehave even been known to chew through stucco and plastic containers.他们的食物涵盖500多种植物,据说有些蜗牛甚至还啃食石灰泥和塑料袋。And for your health.蜗牛对人类的健康也有害。Some of these snails can carry diseases such as a parasitic rat lungworm thatcan cause meningitis in humans.一些蜗牛会携带具有寄生性的大鼠肺丝虫和其他疾病,导致人类患上脑膜炎。So if you see a giant African land snail in your yard, dont touch itor kill it yourself.因此,你要是在自家的庭院看到一个巨大的非洲蜗牛,珍爱生命,千万别碰。Instead, call your local authorities or department of agriculture so that they can dispose of the snail and its nesting materials safely.你要做的是打电话请地方当局或农业部门来安全地处理它们及它们筑巢的材料。 201406/304935State-controlled airlines国营航空公司Flags of inconvenience“不舒适”的代名词Why governments are so keen to keep their loss-making airlines aloft为什么各国政府都十分热衷于保有不断亏损的航空公司呢?MALAYSIA AIRLINES deserves sympathy. This year Flight MH370 disappeared over the Indian Ocean and MH17 was shot down over eastern Ukraine. But these tragedies merely hastened the struggling airline on its route back into full government ownership. On August 8th the countrys sovereign-wealth fund offered to buy the 30% of shares in private hands in order to restructure the airline. The root cause of Malaysias troubles should elicit far less pity. Like many national carriers, it was losing money as a matter of course.近期马来西亚航空的遭遇值得同情。今年,马航相继发生了两起灾难:航班MH370在印度洋上空失踪,以及航班MH17在乌克兰东部遭到击落。但这些悲剧事件仅仅是加快了深陷泥潭的马航回归到全面国有控制的步伐而已。8月8日,国家主权财富基金提出以从私人持股者手中购入30%的马航公司股份,进而对该航空公司实施重建计划。然而,导致马航深陷经营危机的原因或许根本不值得怜悯。就像诸多国营航空公司一样,马航也理所当然地处于亏损状态。Malaysias is not the only government that persists in keeping rickety airlines in flight. Italy raided the states coffers again last year to keep Alitalia going. Then, on the day of the Malaysia bail-out, Etihad, the flag carrier of the ed Arab Emirates, agreed to inject a further 560m (750m) into Alitalia in return for a 49% stake. A restructuring plan agreed at the end of July will keep Polands LOT in business—in return for 200m of taxpayers cash.在坚持保有这些摇摇欲坠的航空公司方面,马来西亚政府并不“孤单”。意大利政府在去年再次搜刮国库资金,以维持意大利航空的运作。紧接在马航被收归国有的那天,阿联酋的旗舰航空公司阿提哈德航空(Etihad)同意向意大利航空进一步注入5亿6千万欧元,以换取后者49%的股份。一份7月末达成的重建计划将令波兰的LOT航空持续经营,而其代价则是纳税人手中的2亿美元。The drain on public funds has a long tradition. Airlines used to be regarded as a vital part of transport infrastructure, like roads or bridges. So, until the mid-1980s, governments owned most of the airlines, set fares and routes, and protected flag-carriers by restricting new entrants. But privatisation made air travel more competitive and liberalisation brought competition from low-cost carriers. Most airlines in state control have failed to adapt.政府对公共资金的耗费俨然已有很长的历史。就像是公路和桥梁一样,航空公司从前就被认为是交通基础建设当中的一个重要部分。因此,直到上世纪80年代为止,大部分航空公司都是政府所有的。政府不仅设置机票价格,还设定飞行路线,同时还通过阻止新竞争者进入市场的方式来保护旗舰航空公司。然而,航空业的私营化却使得航空旅行的较量更加激烈,航空业的开放也将低成本航空公司引入了市场竞争当中。而这也令许多国营航空无所适从。The exceptions are few. The thriving airlines of Singapore and Ethiopia, and the Gulf carriers, Etihad, Emirates and Qatar Airways, all benefited from government money but have been allowed to operate as commercial enterprises with minimal interference. Such entrepreneurial thrust is rare. Elsewhere, inexperienced cronies often dominate management. State employees frequently travel free. Many carriers are obliged to maintain loss-making domestic routes to please politicians. Olympic Airlines was forced to deliver newspapers for a pittance to keep the countrys press barons happy. The Greek national carrier went to the wall in .独树一帜的国营航空是很罕见的。有一批蓬勃发展的国营竞争者,如新加坡航空和埃塞俄比亚航空,以及海湾地区的阿提哈德航空、阿联酋航空和卡塔尔航空,上述“例外”均为国家资本持,但在经营上都有着如同商业企业般的权限,有着极低的政府干预。如此开创性的航空业推动很稀有。而在其他非“例外”的国营航空当中,缺乏行业经验的“裙带货”常常身处管理层的高位;国企员工经常性地能够享受免费航空旅程;为了取悦政客的欢心,许多航空公司还一直运作部分持续亏损的国内航线。为了令国家媒体大亨开心,奥林匹克航空公司不得不以微薄的酬劳来为其配送报刊。这家希腊国营的航空公司最终于年宣布倒闭。Poor management, overstaffing and strong unions have left airlines struggling in a changing business and with little hope of cost-cutting or streamlining. Small state-owned carriers have little clout when buying planes and are far down the pecking order in global airline alliances. So why do governments keep their flag carriers?在一个不断变化的经营环境里,管理不善、人浮于事以及盘根错节的“小联盟”都使得国营航空公司苦苦挣扎,削减成本和部门改革等等的手段对他们来说只是奢望。在购置飞机的时候,小型国营航空话语权极低,而在全球航空联盟等级当中也是地位低下的弱者。那么,为什么各大政府都愿意保有他们的旗舰航空公司呢?Partly because there are few options beyond an endless cycle of failed restructurings. Privatisation plans are plentiful but rarely succeed because heavy losses, debts and legacy costs frighten investors away. It is cheaper to start an airline from scratch. Saviours such as Etihad are as rare as an on-time departure from Beijing airport.其部分原因是,除了深陷于一个不停失败的重建循环之外,航空公司并没有多少更好的选择。私营化的案例很多,但成功的私营化案例却很少,而这是出于沉重的亏损、债务以及历史遗留成本,这些不利因素都令投资者惊慌而逃。与接手一家航空公司相比,白手起家似乎更实惠些。就算是阿提哈德航空这样的国营航空里的“救世主”,也无法准时在北京机场起飞。The political cost of turfing out thousands of state employees makes liquidation unpalatable. So do fears that vital connections to the world will be lost forever. These, in fact, are largely unfounded. Switzerland and Belgium have done without a flag carrier for years. Indeed, opening up to competition is likely to result in more flights and lower fares. But even in death, protectionist urges are strong. Zambian Airways was liquidated in but the government refuses to let foreign airlines use Lusaka as a hub, in the unlikely event that the airline will one day fly again.要令成千上万国企员工失去饭碗才能达成的重组计划,其政治代价过于高昂,这也意味着实施清盘难上加难。与此同时,政府还十分害怕一旦实行了航空业改革,一个联系世界的重要通道就此被隔绝。但事实上,这些担忧大多都是没有必要的。就像是瑞士和比利时政府,他们早已在多年前放弃了国营旗舰航空。航空业的改革开放确实会令竞争加剧,从而令更多的航班和更低的票价能够参与到市场竞争来。然而,就算这些国营航空徘徊于生死线当中,贸易保护主义者的姿态依然强硬。赞比亚航空在年遭到了清盘,而即便是国外航空公司有能力让其重新运营,政府还是拒绝让国外的航空公司插手其中,其原因是政府不想让卢萨卡成为一个航空枢纽。 /201408/323070盐城协和医院咨询电话

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盐城可视微管无痛人流医院 Business商业报道Electric cars电动汽车Fully charged马力十足Tesla gains new admirers as it heads towards the mass market面向大众市场,特斯拉赢得许多新的追随者IF COMFORTABLY outpacing your rivals is the main measure of automotive achievement, Teslas electric car is a resounding success.如果说舒舒超过竞争对手是汽车行业中衡量成功的主要标准,那么特斯拉电动车就是这个行业中响当当的成功者。The Model S last year outsold its nearest luxury rival, Mercedess petrol-engined S-class, by 30% inAmerica.在美国市场中,特斯拉Model S型电动车与最接近的同类型豪华轿车奔驰燃油动力S级轿车相比,前者销量高出30%。And in its top specification the Tesla will also beat the German car in the race from 0-60mph.从特斯拉的高规格中可以看出它将在60英里/小时之内的时速上打败德国车。As a battery-maker Tesla is also moving fast.在电池制造业方面,特斯拉也在迅速前进。This week it announced plans to build a gigafactory inAmericato make lithium-ion power-packs, that it hopes will propel its vehicles to the mainstream.这周特斯拉宣布,计划在美国建造超级电池工厂来生产锂离子能量包,并希望以此可以推动它的电动车成为主流。Teslas acceleration has been rapid.特斯拉的发展速度一直很惊人。Launched a decade ago by Elon Musk, a founder of PayPal and serial tech entrepreneur, last year it sold around 22,000 cars and by the end of 2014 hopes to be making1,000 aweek.十年前,身为贝宝创始人、工程企业家的埃隆马斯克开发的的特斯拉在去年卖出22,000左右辆,而在2014年底之前预期每周售出1,000辆。In early 2015 Tesla will add the Model X, a medium-sized SUV, to its range.在2015年初,特斯拉将新增中等SUV车型Modle X。However, Teslas impressive growth has not yet translated into significant profits.但是,特斯拉如此惊人的高销量还没有转化为利润,A series of battery fires also briefly dented sales growth last year.况且去年一系列的电池火灾事件也使特斯拉的销量有所下降。Nevertheless, Teslas shares surged on February 25th, to value the company at over 30 billion after Morgan Stanley, a bank, joined its adoring fans.但是,在根史丹利成为崇拜它的粉丝后,公司价值超过300亿美元,2月25日特斯拉的销量还是猛增了。It reckons that the battery factory will not only propel it along the road to mass manufacturing but also make it a leading competitor in low-cost energy storage, the key to making renewable energy more practical.根史丹利认为,电池工厂将不只在大批量生产下推动特斯拉发展,还会使它成为低成本能量储存电池的领军者,The bank is also confident that TeslasSilicon Valleylocation will put it in the driverless front seat of autonomous motoring.并相信特斯拉硅谷基地将会带领着特斯拉成为无人驾驶领域的先驱。A recent meeting with Apple, and the iPad-like control panel of the Model S, have convinced some observers that a takeover and an iCar are around the corner, although Mr Musk insists that his firm is not for sale.尽管马斯克坚持说他不会卖公司,但近期特斯拉与苹果高层的一次会面和它生产的类平板电脑控制面板的Model S的面市令一些观察员相信特斯拉的收购和iCar不久就会出现。Tesla has defied its doubters with the success of the Model S, a smartly styled luxury saloon.特斯拉已经用它Model S的成功击败了它的怀疑者。It may not share the outrageous looks of a supercar like the Lamborghini Aventador, but it has the performance without the 400,000-plus price tag.这是一款精简风格的豪华版电动车,虽然它不像兰基尼的艾文塔多那样拥有夸张外表的超跑,但它的表现绝对比得过了40万美元以上的价格。The most basic Model S costs 64,000 inAmerica.最基本的Modle S在美国的税后价是64,000美元。This has won it rave reviews in the motoring press, often sniffy about other electric cars with limited ranges and duff looks.这些为它在汽车新闻赢得了惊呼的,它经常嘲笑其他电动车里程受限、外观无型。By designing a large car with a big battery pack, Tesla has diminished range anxiety—one version can do 310 miles between charges.特斯拉用大容量电池打造巨型车,这就让它消除了里程焦虑-有一款车充电一次可以行驶310英里。But Tesla is so far in a niche, albeit with an incredibly loyal base of wealthy buyers.除了一批极度忠诚而又富有的消费者以外,特斯拉目前正处于一个十分有前景的市场当中。A Tesla is a more stylish way of displaying environmentalist credentials than a lumpen Toyota Prius and more practical than a Ferrari—putting two child seats in the back boosts the capacity to seven passengers.特斯拉比落魄的丰田普锐斯更能体现环保,比法拉利更能体现实用-在后加速器放两个儿童座位,可容纳7人。Mr Musk is a convincing salesman, at least to rich Californians.马斯克是个非常具有有说力的销售员,至少在富有的加利福尼亚来说是这样。The prospects for electric cars have taken a turn for the better.电动车的前景有了转机,可以发展地更好。China, a market that Tesla is eyeing for a third of its sales, last month announced strict new fuel-efficiency standards that may make life hard, if not impossible, for importers of big petrol-engined cars.中国正是特斯拉觊觎的第三大销售市场,上个月中国宣布了严格的新能源节能标准,这一新规很可能使得大型燃油动力汽车进口商举步维艰。The European Union this week confirmed new curbs on tailpipe emissions, to be imposed from 2021.欧盟在这周确定了新的尾气排放限制标准,将从2021年开始实施。Even so, becoming a mass-market General Electric Motors will not be easy.即便如此,要想成为拥有大众市场的通用电动汽车不是件简单的事。In about three years Tesla will launch the Model E, a small saloon with a range of perhaps 400 miles, costing just 35,000 or so—if its new factory can make batteries that are good and cheap enough.如果新工厂能够生产出质优价廉的电池的话,特斯拉将在三年内开发Model E,这是一款可行驶400英里左右的小型豪华车,费用大约在35,000美元。It will have to, because its buyers will be using it as an everyday set of wheels, not an indulgence.特斯拉将不得不研发出高性价比的电池,因为消费者们会把这类车当成代步工具,而不仅仅是一个玩物。And it will have rivals: BMWs i3, launched last year, is aimed at the same market. Other carmakers will follow suit.但它也会有竞争对手:宝马的I3,该款车是去年开发且同特斯拉的有一样的目标市场,至于其他的汽车制造商,只会追随他们的脚步。For buyers who just want the cheapest means of getting from A to B, regardless of the vehicles looks or performance, the lowest-cost petrol cars will be hard to beat for some time to come.有些人不会顾及汽车的外观和性能,只关心价格低廉、方便出行,这样对特斯拉来说,在未来一段时间内很难击败低价汽车。Traditional carmakers talk of one day serving such customers with mobility as a service—fleets of self-driving taxis.传统的汽车制造商宣扬,总有一天,他们将提供给这类消费者一种动力务。Tesla, which is also investing in autonomous driving technology, could be a strong contender in such a new market:特斯拉也正在自动驾驶科技领域投资,它可能在这个新市场是一个强大的竞争者:unlike its older rivals, it would have no legacy business, of factories churning out petrol models, to be disrupted.特斯拉与传统竞争对手不同之处在于,他们没有值得缅怀的传奇,相应地同样也没有即将破败的燃油动力汽车工厂。 /201403/278296盐城市城南新区无痛人流多少钱盐城包皮手术哪家比较好

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