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盐城市第四人民医院治疗阴道炎多少钱建湖县治疗早孕多少钱The question is, has the world gone nuts? It certainly looks like a lot of people are being driven by fear, hatred and greed.  问题来了:这个世界是不是已经疯了?看起来确是如此,因为许多人都在被恐惧、仇恨和欲望所驱使。  Losing our sanity is about getting so absorbed in what someone else thinks that we#39;re no longer in touch with our own sensibility. It#39;s believing that we are right so everyone else must be wrong. It#39;s thinking that bloodshed, violence or guns will actually solve something. It#39;s believing that the real enemy is #39;them#39;, and that by eradicating #39;them#39; we make ourselves safe.  失去理智,即意味着沉迷于他人的观念之中,从而失去了自身的辨识力;抑或意味着笃信我们自己一定是正确的,所以别人肯定错了;抑或是认为流血、暴力和杀能实际解决问题;也意味着相信我们真正的敌人是“他者”,并认为只要铲除他者,我们就安全了。  None of the above makes any sense in a sane world. Gaining our sanity means we know the difference between right and wrong, we know that two wrongs don#39;t make a right. It#39;s knowing that kindness wins every time. It#39;s knowing that the one who shouts the loudest invariably needs the most help. It#39;s knowing that sharing, communicating with, and helping each other is the best way to ensure our continued existence.  如果世界是理智的,所有这些都毫无道理。保持理性,就是我们要明辨是非,我们知道错上加错不会让问题得到纠正,知道善良永远会战胜邪恶,知道吼声最凶的人一定是最需要帮助的人,知道分享、交流和互相帮助才是让我们长久生存下去的最佳方法。  Chaos is natural — our universe is organized chaos — so to find our sanity in the midst of this is vital. Life is unpredictable, everything is constantly changing, the only security is knowing there is none. Arenown meditation teacher once said that there should be no difference between meditating in a cave or in the chaos of a city, as stillness is inside us and not dependent on external circumstances.  混乱是一种自然的状态——我们的宇宙本身就是一个有序的混乱体——所以在混乱的世界中求得理性就尤为重要。生活不可预知,万事都在永恒的变化之中,唯一可以确定的是世界上根本没有确定性的东西。一位著名的冥想师曾说过,在山洞中冥想和在喧嚣的城市中冥想其实并无分别,因为宁静是存在于我们心中而不是外部环境中的。  Think of the sky that has clouds, storms, rain, snow, tornados, lightening, thunder, yet behind IT all is the sky, unchanging. Beneath our tears and grief, beneath the dramas and conflicts, there is a very sane, still and calm place we can rest in.  想想气象万千的天空,可能云层密布,可能暴雨倾盆,抑或雨水纷纷,可能下雪、刮台风,或许电闪雷鸣;可是,在这些喧嚣背后,天空永远宁静。在我们的泪水和悲伤的背后,在挫折和冲突的背后,就是最本真的理性,这是供我们栖息的最恒久、最安全之地。 /201603/433303盐城协和专科医院 Once, they were known as unmentionables, and it only mattered that they were clean. You never knew, after all, when you might be knocked down by a bus.曾经,人们羞于谈论它,对它的唯一要求就是干净——因为你不知道自己什么时候会被公交车撞倒。“When we were young, you would never show your underwear,” the designer Tommy Hilfiger said recently, referring to an era when Dwight D. Eisenhower was president. “Now, if you don’t show your underwear, you’re just not cool.”前不久,时装设计师汤米·希尔费格(Tommy Hilfiger)说:“我们年轻时,永远不会给别人看你的内裤。”他指的是德怀特·D·艾森豪威尔(Dwight D. Eisenhower)当总统的那个时期。“现在,如果你不展示自己的内裤,别人会认为你不够酷。”Mr. Hilfiger was marking one of those shifts in the culture that lurch along with a tectonic jolt. For generations, American men who were raised wearing generic boxers or Jockeys purchased in three-packs expended little thought or time or post-tax income on the foundation garments worn beneath their outerwear. The whole point of skivvies seemed to be encapsulated in the name given to the category under which they were sold: intimates.希尔费格谈到的是社会文化中突然发生的重大变化之一。无数代美国男人都是穿着没有牌子的三条装平角裤或乔基三角裤(Jockey)长大的,他们几乎没有在里面穿的基础内衣上花过什么心思、时间或税后收入。以前,男士内衣这个概念似乎是包含在贴身内衣这个更大的销售门类下面的。That was before Justin Bieber, of course, before sexting and saggers and artfully lighted, half-clad Snapchat selfies. It was before baldly erotic s of Rafael Nadal popped up on smartphones or monitors in advertisements depicting one of the world’s top tennis players doing a locker-room striptease in Mr. Hilfiger’s new line of sexy boxer briefs — images that even five years ago may have been flagged as NSFW.当然,那是在贾斯汀·比伯(Justin Bieber)之前,是在发送性感短信和穿低腰裤露出内裤之前,是巧妙打光的半裸自拍照出现在Snapchat上之前。那是在拉斐尔·纳达尔(Rafael Nadal)非常魅惑的更衣室脱衣挑逗视频突然出现在智能手机或电脑显示器上之前。那个视频是这位顶级网球运动员为希尔费格新的性感平角紧身内裤系列拍摄的广告。这样的视频就算在五年前还会被列为“少儿不宜”。It was also before a trend (most likely inaugurated by Calvin Klein in the prehistory of Marky Mark) that gained considerable momentum over the last dozen years, that of offering so-called premium underwear for men. “Underwear is where jeans were 20 years ago,” Mr. Hilfiger said. “It’s the new denim.”那也是在给男人们提供所谓的优质内裤这股潮流(它很可能是马克·沃尔伯格[Marky Mark]早期为卡尔文·克莱恩[Calvin Klein]拍摄的广告引领起来的)兴起之前。近十多年,这股潮流势头大涨。希尔费格说:“如今的内裤就像20年前的牛仔裤。它是新的牛仔裤。”Proof of that assertion can be found on The Underwear Expert, a startlingly comprehensive website dedicated to researching, testing, reviewing and even curating for sale underpants culled from the nearly 600 labels now crowding the field.你可以在The Underwear Expert网站找到这一论断的据。这家网站专门研究、测试、评价甚至策划销售内裤,内容十分全面。那些内裤是从目前挤满市场的近600个品牌中挑选出来的。“The options out there are what make men’s underwear a really interesting category,” said Michael Kleinmann, the site’s founder. “It’s not just three packs from Walmart or something out of the back of a catalog anymore.”该网站的创始人迈克尔·克莱因曼(Michael Kleinmann)说:“现在市场上的男士内裤品牌非常多,它变成了一个非常有趣的门类。它不再只是沃尔玛(Walmart)的三条装内裤,也不再只是从属于某个门类。”Jostling for a position in the retailing “white space” of an apparel category little altered for decades are niche labels like Sunspel, Handvaerk, Hanro, Tani, Zimmerli, Naked, Under and Les Lunes.几十年来,这个装门类几乎没有什么变化。现在,很多专门的内裤品牌在争夺这个零售“空白地带”,比如Sunspel,Handvaerk,Hanro,Tani,Zimmerli,Naked,Under,以及Les Lunes。Priced in a broad range from .99 (the figure at which men’s underpants are considered “premium”) to the 0 the French luxury-goods house Hermès charges for a pair of woven boxers are briefs whose virtues are sometimes described in terms better suited to the aerospace than the apparel industry.男士内裤的定价范围很广,从24.99美元(这个价位的男士内裤被认为是“优质的”)到470美元。后者是法国奢侈品公司爱马仕(Hermès)给一条编织平角内裤的定价。形容这些内裤优点的用语更像是来自航空航天业,而非装业。Relative newcomers like Mack Weldon and the Eighth now offer well-constructed though low-key products pitched online to a prosperous imaginary Everyman. Indie labels like Bear Skn, started in 2014 with ,000 in seed money raised on Kickstarter, offers premium underwear in sizes as large as 4XL because, as Jody Koenig, a founder of the label, explained, “There was nothing out there for bigger guys to make them feel sexy or hot.”Mack Weldon和Eighth等比较新的品牌现在供应裁剪精致而低调的产品,在网上的营销定位是想象中的富裕的普通人。Bear Skn是2014年通过在Kickstarter筹集的5.6万美元创立的独立品牌,它提供最大为4XL的优质内裤,因为就像它的创始人乔迪·凯尼格(Jody Koenig)说的:“市场上没有给大体格男人准备的性感内裤”。Some, like Marco Morante, the designer of Marco Marco, a label whose gender-various fashion shows were a surprise hit of the recent Los Angeles Fashion Week, happened into the category almost accidentally after viewers of “RuPaul’s Drag Race,” where Mr. Morante was doing costume design, started clamoring for the briefs he designed for the show’s pneumatic Pit Crew hunks.Marco Marco的设计师马尔科·莫兰特(Marco Morante)是偶然进入这个门类的。在担任《鲁保罗变装皇后秀》(RuPaul’s Drag Race)的装设计师期间,他为健壮性感的修理工设计的内裤得到观众赞扬,从而进入这个领域。前不久,该品牌的多性别时装秀成为洛杉矶时装周(Los Angeles Fashion Week)上的黑马。“We’ve kind of done everything we can do in women’s fashion,” Mr. Morante said. “Men’s is a blank slate because we’re working with concepts that are 50 years old or more.”莫兰特说:“在女装方面,我们几乎什么都试过了。而男装是个白板,我们采用的仍是50年前的概念。”Technological advances have resulted in briefs that now seem less designed than engineered to aerate, separate, wick, deodorize and adjust body temperature or battle microbes with antibacterial silver filament added to their weaves.现在的内裤更多的不在于样式设计,而在于技术创新,比如透气、干爽、吸汗、除臭、调节体温,或者通过在织物中加入抗菌银丝而达到抗菌效果。That men now increasingly purchase underwear for themselves, rather than relying as in the past on women to make their unglamorous utilitarian purchases, “kind of shows were we are as a country,” Mr. Kleinmann said.克莱因曼说,现在越来越多的男人自己挑选内裤,而不是像过去那样,由女人来购买那些单调实用的内裤,“间接地反映出我们国家的现状。”At the very least, it demonstrates changes in the way men shop. “Guys are shopping differently now, much more like women,” said Marshal Cohen, chief retailing analyst at the NPD Group, a market research company in New York. “The women’s market is not growing in the intimates business,” he added. Women, on the other hand, now account for the majority of electronics purchases.这至少反映出男人购物习惯的变化。纽约市场调查公司恩帛源集团(NPD Group)的首席零售分析师马歇尔·科恩(Marshal Cohen)说:“男人们现在的购物方式更像女人。而女装市场的内衣部分没有增长。”从另一方面讲,女人现在是网购的主体。“In the past, 75 percent of underwear purchases were women buying for men,” Mr. Cohen said. “Now, that’s more like 25 percent. In the past, the most significant decision a guy had to make was prints or solids, boxers or briefs.” The proliferation of new labels, he said, had spurred a solid sales uptick in a market that reached .7 billion in 2014.科恩说:“过去,75%的男士内裤是女人买给男人的;现在,这个比例大约是25%。过去,男人们只需要决定要印花还是纯色,要平角裤还是三角裤。”他说,大量新品牌的出现刺激了销售的不断增长,2014年男士内裤的总销售额达27亿美元。“Guys are now very comfortable being part of the fashion equation,” Mr. Cohen said. “Every part of what we wear has now become a part of image-building. That includes shoes, your socks, your pants and your underwear.”科恩说:“现在,男人们非常愿意成为时尚界的一部分。现在我们的所有饰都成为形象塑造的一部分,包括鞋子、袜子、裤子和内裤。”When the rapper and entrepreneur Curtis Jackson III, perhaps better known as 50 Cent, was casting about for ways to augment a portfolio that included investments in vodka, energy drinks and an equity stake in Vitaminwater, he set his sights on premium underwear.说唱歌手、企业家柯蒂斯·杰克逊三世(Curtis Jackson III,他的艺名50美分[50 Cent]更为人所知)在考虑扩大投资(他已经投资了伏特加和能量饮料,并拥有Vitaminwater的股权)时,把目光投向了优质内裤。Teaming up with Frigo, a premium underwear brand developed by Mathias Ingvarsson, the Swedish entrepreneur who helped transform Tempur-Pedic from a no-name mattress brand into a global powerhouse, Mr. Jackson last December helped close an million licensing deal for a brand apparently pitched at the so-called urban market. (Fellow investors include Carmelo Anthony of the New York Knicks and the music producer Timothy Mosley, known as Timbaland.)去年12月,杰克逊和优质内裤品牌Frigo签订了8000万美元的授权协议(其他投资人包括纽约尼克斯队[New York Knicks]的卡尔梅洛·安东尼[Carmelo Anthony]和音乐制作人蒂莫西·莫斯利[Timothy Mosley,艺名Timbaland])。Frigo显然是针对所谓的城市市场,它是瑞典企业家马赛厄斯·英瓦松(Mathias Ingvarsson)开发的。英瓦松曾帮助把泰普尔(Tempur-Pedic)从一个不知名的床垫品牌变成一个全球知名企业。“It’s about men being more conscious of themselves and feeling like they deserve more,” said Mr. Jackson, who added that, until not long ago, his underwear of choice was basic white Jockeys. “My grandmother always said, ‘If you wear white underwear, your underwear will tell you when to change it.’”杰克逊说:“现在男人们更在意自己,感觉自己应该得到更多。”他补充说,不久之前,他的内裤都还是白色基本款乔基裤,“我奶奶总是说,‘如果你穿白色内裤,它会告诉你什么时候该换了’”。The marketing of Frigo tends to favor innovation over style as a way to lure consumers to a product that costs up to 0 a pair. Like the patented AussieBum Wonderjock, or the SAXX Vibe “articulated contour pouch,” or 2UNDR’s “Joey Pouch,” or the “keyhole comfort pouch” made by the label MyPakage, Frigo briefs also feature a patented interior pouch designed to lift and display a man’s anatomical endowment to maximum benefit. Perhaps not coincidentally, the Frigo pouch was devised by an inventor who once won a contest to design a Tempur-Pedic pillow.Frigo的市场营销是通过强调技术创新(而非时尚)来吸引顾客购买售价高达100美元一条的内裤。就像澳洲雄风(AussieBum)拥有专利技术的Wonderjock,或SAXX牌内裤Vibe版“展现轮廓的小袋”,或2UNDR的“幼兽袋”,或MyPakage的“锁孔舒适袋”,Frigo的三角裤也有专利内袋,设计目的是提升并令男子性征得以最佳展现。设计Frigo内袋的发明家曾赢得了一场设计泰普尔枕头的竞赛,这也许不是巧合。Packaged masculinity is nothing new, according to Edwina Ehrman, a curator of textiles and fashion at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, where “Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear” is slated to open in the spring. “Think about the codpiece,” said Ms. Ehrman, referring to the genital-enhancing pouches favored by European gentlemen of the Renaissance, some of which resemble the pommel of saddle or else a bike seat. “It was absolutely kind of out there, this really extraordinary display of masculine power and virility, decorated with bows and ribbons and flourishes.”伦敦维多利亚与艾伯特物馆(Victoria and Albert Museum)即将在明年春季举办“脱下衣:内裤简史”展(Undressed: A Brief History of Underwear)。该物馆的纺织品和时装策展人埃德温娜·埃尔曼(Edwina Ehrman)说,装饰男子性征不是什么新鲜事,“你想想下体盖片”——她指的是文艺复兴时期受到欧洲绅士青睐的提升阳具的小袋,有的形似马鞍前鞍桥,有的形似自行车座——“展示男性力量和特质的方式以前肯定有,比如装饰蝴蝶结、丝带和花饰”。Even the anatomical disclosures so routinely worked into the sexting era have historical antecedents, she said. “At the end of the 18th century, there were these incredibly skin-tight buckskin breeches that men wore that show absolutely every curve,” Ms. Ehrman said.埃尔曼说,甚至连发送性感短信年代经常出现的性征暴露也有历史渊源,“在18世纪末,男人们喜欢穿那种不可思议的紧身鹿皮马裤,所有的线条都暴露无遗”。What has changed, she said, is how the boom in premium underwear parallels another phenomenon rooted squarely in 21st-century solipsism. “Every aspect of how you present yourself is now important,” she said, to the merchandising of one’s individual brand.她说,与那时不同的是,优质内裤的兴旺与另一个完全植根于21世纪唯我论的现象齐头并进。她说,“如今你外在形象的各个方面”对个人品牌塑造“都很重要”。Seated in their garment district showroom last week, the designers Parke Lutter and Ronen Jehezkel awaited the arrival of a group of young hopefuls auditioning for an event to celebrate the debut of a collection of high-end Parke amp; Ronen underwear.上周,设计师帕克·卢特尔(Parke Lutter)和罗嫩·杰赫科尔(Ronen Jehezkel)坐在装区他们的展厅里,准备从一批年轻有志者中挑选合适的模特,参加帕克amp;罗嫩(Parke amp; Ronen )一个高端内裤系列的发布活动。The designers, who, starting in 1997, carved out a solid niche in a once fusty and now booming category, men’s swimwear, overcame their initial hesitance to enter a field dominated by designers like Mr. Hilfiger when customers expressed their desire for underwear, Mr. Lutter said, “that fit well, was made from good materials, was clean and athletic but sexy.”从1997年,这两位设计师在曾经死气沉沉而今十分兴旺的男装市场中开拓了一个重要的细分市场:男士泳衣。当顾客们表达出对内裤的需求时,他们克最初的犹豫,进入这个由希尔费格等设计师主导的领域。卢特尔说:顾客们想要“裁剪合体、面料优良、简洁动感且性感”的内裤。What persuaded them was the resounding chorus of friends who referred to the duo’s frankly sexy runway presentations as “the Victoria’s Secret show for men,” along with the recognition that their client base — as represented by the young models slouching outside the showroom — had undergone a generational shift.朋友们对这个二人组合非常性感的内衣秀大加赞赏,称它是“维多利亚的秘密(Victoria’s Secret)内衣秀的男士版”,这更是让他们下定了决心。另外一个原因是,他们发现,客户群已经经历了代次变迁,目前的客户代表是展厅外的那些懒洋洋的年轻模特们。More than two decades after the term “metrosexual” was coined as a catchall for a new breed of consumer, men have eased into their role as the object of other people’s gaze. “Social media really put the skin out there,” said Seth Wilkerson, a 24-year-old model who was at the Parke and Ronen audition, and the designers ily seconded the opinion.20多年前,“都市型男”(metrosexual)这个词被造出来,形容新一代顾客。如今,男人们已经慢慢习惯成为他人注视的对象。24岁的模特塞思·威尔克森(Seth Wilkerson)来参加帕克和罗嫩的模特挑选。他说:“社交媒体真的让人们开始公开暴露自己的身体。”两位设计师十分赞同他的观点。“Look, you could put the sexy pictures on the web and do it in your three-pack BVDs,” Mr. Jehezkel said. “But let’s face it, you’re not going to get as many likes.”杰赫科尔说:“你知道,你可以把自己穿着三条装内裤的性感照片放在网上。不过,说实话,那样你得到的赞就少多了。” /201512/414877A restaurant run by prisoners at a tough jail has been voted one of Britain#39;s top 10 fine dining venues.英国一所防范严密的监狱里的囚犯经营的餐厅被票选为英国十佳就餐场所之一。The Clink Restaurant, staffed by inmates from Cardiff and Prescoed prisons, beat establishments run by celebrity chefs including Gordon Ramsay and Jamie Oliver to take 10th place.The Clink餐厅的务人员是来自加的夫(Cardiff)和普莱斯各(Prescoed)的监狱的囚犯。这家监狱餐厅打败了包括戈登#8226;拉姆齐(Gordon Ramsay)和杰米·奥利弗(Jamie Oliver)等名厨经营的餐厅,夺得了榜单的第十名。Included in the top 10 was michelin-starred Le Manoir aux Quat#39;Saisons in Great Milton, Oxfordshire, which came third.其他上榜餐厅还有位于牛津郡(Oxfordshire)大弥尔顿(Great Milton)的四季农庄餐厅(Le Manoir aux Quat#39;Saisons),这家米其林星级餐厅在榜单上位列第三。Reviews on website TripAdvisor were used to decide who should win the 2015 Travellers#39; Choice Restaurants awards.猫途鹰(TripAdvisor)网站上的用户被用于决定谁能赢得2015年旅行者首选餐厅奖(the 2015 Travellers#39; Choice Restaurants awards)。Customers said the ;friendly and informative staff; put other waiters to shame.顾客说,The Clink餐厅“友好且善于提供有用信息的员工”让别处的侍应相形见绌。The 96-seat restaurant, serving breakfast and lunch, opened to the public in 2012. Thirty inmates are each paid #163;14 for a 40-hour week.这家餐厅有96个座位,提供早餐和午餐,于2012年对公众开放。30位囚犯每周工作40小时,每人可获得14英镑的报酬。The Clink has been credited with helping to slash reoffending rates. Latest figures show it has reduced the rate of the released prisoners who worked there to 12.5 per cent.The Clink餐厅被认为有助于降低再犯率。最新数据显示,该餐厅把曾在此工作的囚犯获释后的再犯率降低至12.5%。TripAdvisor spokesman James Kay said: ;Given how competitive the UK restaurant industry is, the fact that The Clink Restaurant is the only winning Welsh restaurant demonstrates the incredibly high standard of food and service that the team consistently delivers to customers.;猫途鹰的发言人詹姆斯·凯伊(James Kay)称:“The Clink餐厅是威尔士唯一一家上榜的餐厅。考虑到英国餐饮业竞争的激烈程度,这无疑显示了这家餐厅的员工们坚持带给顾客的高水准饮食及务。”It was also named top spot in Cardiff out of 946 restaurants in the city.这家餐厅也被提名为全卡的夫市946家餐厅之中的就餐首选地。Opened in 2012, The Clink Cardiff is now one of four restaurants run by prisoners across the UK through The Clink Charity.卡的夫的The Clink餐厅于2012年开张,是慈善机构The Clink Charity在英国国内开的由囚犯提供务的四家餐厅之一。The charity also has restaurants at HMPs Brixton, High Down and Styal and aims to reduce reoffending through projects that train and give practical skills to prisoners to aid their rehabilitation.该慈善机构也在布里克斯顿(Brixton)监狱(HMP,即Her Majesty#39;s Prison)、高唐(High Down)监狱和斯蒂亚尔(Styal )监狱开了餐厅,旨在通过这些项目,培训囚犯并授予他们实用技能,帮助他们改过自新,以降低再犯罪率。Chris Moore, chief executive of The Clink Charity, said: ;The whole team is delighted to have made it into the top 10 restaurants in the UK by TripAdvisor users, and to be ranked so highly against almost 1,000 restaurants in the city of Cardiff is a huge achievement for us.;The Clink Charity的首席执行官克里斯·尔(Chris Moore)表示:“餐厅的所有员工都为餐厅被猫途鹰网友评选入围英国十佳餐厅榜单而高兴。打败了卡的夫市近1000家餐厅,并 得到这么高的评价,对我们来说是一项巨大成就。” /201510/405524响水县人民医院在线咨询

盐城协和医院人流的价格盐城妇保医院无痛人流多少钱 Melting of glaciers near the Earth#39;s poles and the resulting rise in sea level is slowing down the Earth#39;s rotation, thereby increasing the length of our days, a new study suggests.最新的研究称,地球两极附近的冰川融化以及由此引起的海平面上升,减缓了地球自转的速度,进而增加了一天的时长。Scientists are studying past changes in sea level in order to make accurate future predictions of the consequence of climate change, and they are looking down to Earth#39;s core to do so.为了准确预测未来气候变化的结果,科学家正在研究过去海平面的变化,他们准备通过观察地核来进行这项研究。;In order to understand the sea-level change that has occurred in the past century, we need to understand the dynamics of the flow in Earth#39;s core,; said Mathieu Dumberry, a professor in physics. The connection is through the change in the speed of Earth#39;s rotation.物理学教授马修·大木瑞说:“为了弄清楚过去一个世纪海平面发生的变化,我们需要了解地核中的流动力学。”我们发现了地球自转速度的改变,它们之间存在关联。Melting water from glaciers not only causes sea-level rise, but also shifts mass from the pole to the equator. The gravity pull from the Moon also contributes to the slow down. As a consequence, the length of our days is slowly increasing. In fact, a century from now, the length of a day will increase by 1.7 milliseconds, researchers said.冰川融化不仅引起了海平面上升,而且把地球质量从极点转移到了赤道。来自月球的引力同样促成了地球自转速度的降低。因此,我们一天的长度正在逐渐变长。研究者称,事实上,一个世纪以后,一天的长度将增加1.7微秒。 /201512/416147盐都区治疗女性不孕哪家医院最好的

盐城协和医院怎么样要去割包皮Qing Dynasty清朝The Westernization Movement洋务运动The rude realities of the Opium War, the unequal treaties, and the mid-century mass uprisings caused Qing courtiers and officials to recognize the need to strengthen China.鸦片战争残酷的现实、不平等条约以及中世纪的大规模起义使清朝政府和官员意识到要让国家强大起来。Chinese scholars and officials had been examining and translating “Western Learning” since the 1840s.中国的学者和官员自19世纪40年代起开始检查翻译“洋学”。Under the direction of modern-thinking Han officials, Western science and languages were studied, special schools were opened in the larger cities, and arsenals, factories, and shipyards were established according to Western models.在具有现代性思维的汉家学者的引导下,人们学习了西方的科学和语言,一些大城市开设了特殊的学校,军械库、工厂和船坞也参照西方的模型得到了建造。Western diplomatic practices were adopted by the Qing, and students were sent abroad by the government and on individual or community initiative in the hope that national regeneration could be achieved through the application of Western practical methods.清朝采纳了西方的外交手段,学生们单独或成团被政府送去海外读书,希望可以通过运用西方的实践方法振兴国家。Amid these activities came an attempt to arrest the dynastic decline by restoring the traditional order.这些举措致力于通过重建传统秩序来组织朝代的衰败。The effort was known as the Tongzhi Restoration, named for the Tongzhi Emperor (1862—1874), and was engineered by the young emperors mother, the Empress Dowager Ci Xi (1835—1908).这场努力被称为“同治中兴”,它取自同治皇帝(1862——1874)的名讳,并由这位年轻帝王的母亲,慈禧太后(1835——1908)设计指导。The restoration, however, which applied “practical knowledge”, while reaffirming the old mentality, was not a genuine program of modernization.然而,这场革新,在运用“实用性知识”的同时却不断重申老的心态,它并不是一个真正的现代化计划。The effort to graft Western technology onto Chinese institutions became known as the Self-Strengthening Movement.试图将西方的科技嫁接到中国的制度上的尝试开始自“洋务运动”。The movement was championed by scholar-generals like Li Hongzhang (1823—1901) and Zuo Zongtang (1812—1885), who had fought with the government forces in the Taiping Rebellion.这场运动由士大夫们领导,比如李鸿章(1823——1901)和左宗棠(1812——1885),他们曾在太平起义中与政府军作战。From 1861 to 1894, leaders such as these, now turned scholar-administrators, were responsible for establishing modem institutions, developing basic industries, communications, and transportation, and modernizing the military.1861到1894年间,现在成为大臣们的这些人负责建立了现代的机构,发展基础工业、通信和交通业并是军队现代化。But despite its leaders’ accomplishments, the Self-Strengthening Movement did not recognize the significance of the political institutions and social theories that had fostered Western advances and innovations.尽管其领导者成就累累,洋务运动却没有意识到促进西方进步与改革的政治制度和社会理论。This weakness led to the movement’s failure.这个忽视导致了运动的失败。Modernization during this period would have been difficult under the best of circumstances.现代化进程在这段时期最好的情况下都很困难。The bureaucracy was still deeply influenced by Neo-Confucian orthodoxy.官僚机构仍然深受儒家正统思想的影响。Chinese society was still reeling from the ravages of the Taiping and other rebellions, and foreign encroachments continued to threaten the integrity of China.中国社会仍然受到太平军和其他起义的破坏,西方的侵略继续威胁着中国的统一和完整。The first step in the foreign powers’ effort to carve up the empire was taken by Russia, which had been expanding into Central Asia.西方列强中第一个尝试瓜分中国的是俄国,当时它已经扩张到了中亚地区。By the 1850s, tsarist troops also had invaded the Heilong Jiang watershed of Manchuria, from which their countrymen had been ejected under the Treaty of Nerchinsk.到19世纪50年代,沙皇的部队也向满洲国的黑龙江流域进攻,原本居住在那里的人们受到了《尼布楚条约》的驱逐。The Russians used the superior knowledge of China they had acquired through their century-long residence in Beijing to further their aggrandizement.俄国人通过他们居住在北京几个世纪以来获得的有关中国的大量知识来加大扩张。In 1860 Russian diplomats secured the secession of all of Manchuria north of the Heilong Jiang and east of the Wusuli Jiang (Ussuri River).1860年,俄国外交官将黑龙江北部及乌苏里江东部从满洲国分裂出来。Foreign encroachments increased after 1860 by means of a series of treaties imposed on China on one pretext or another.1860年之后,通过条约,一个又一个施加在中国身上的理由加速了西方的入侵。The foreign stranglehold on the vital sectors of the Chinese economy was reinforced through a lengthening list of concessions.西方对于中国重要经济部门的控制由于国家不断的让步而加强。Foreign settlements in the treaty ports became extraterritorial sovereign pockets of territories over which China had no jurisdiction.他们在中国通商口岸的驻扎使之成为了西方的境外领土,中国对这些区域却失去了管辖权。The safety of these foreign settlements was ensured by the menacing presence of warships and gunboats.他们具有威慑力的军舰和炮艇保障了这些外国人定居点的安全。At this time the foreign powers also took over the peripheral states that had acknowledged Chinese suzerainty and given tribute to the emperor.这个时期,外国列强还控制了中国周边的国家,这些国家曾承认中国使它们的宗主国并向清朝皇帝进贡。France colonized Cochin China, as southern Vietnam was then called, and by 1864 established a protectorate over Cambodia. Following a victorious war against China in 1884—1885, France also took Annam.法国殖民了交趾那,也就是后来的越南,并在1864年使柬埔寨成为了受保护国。在1884到1885年间战胜中国后,法国又占领了安南。Britain gained control over Burma.英国获得了缅甸的控制权。Russia penetrated into Chinese Turkestan (the modern-day Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region).俄国攻入了中国的突厥斯坦(今天的新疆维吾尔自治区)。Japan, having emerged from its century-and-a-half-long seclusion and having gone through its own modernization movement, defeated China in the war of 1894—1895.日本从其长达一个半世纪之久的隐退中兴起,在经历了自己的现代化运动后,于1894到1895年间与中国的战争中胜利。The Treaty of Shimonoseki forced China to cede Taiwan and the Penghu Islands to Japan, pay a huge indemnity, permit the establishment of Japanese industries in four treaty ports, and recognize Japanese hegemony over Korea.《马关条约》迫使中国将台湾和澎湖列岛割让给日本,付巨额赔偿,允许日本在四个通常口岸建立工厂,并将对韩国的领导权交给日本。In 1898 the British acquired a ninety-nine-year lease over the so-called Territories of Kowloon (or Jiulong in pinyin), which increased the size of their Hong Kong colony.1898年,英国获得了对九龙地区99年的租期,这扩大了他们香港殖民地的版图。Britain, Japan, Russia, Germany, France, and Belgium each gained spheres of influence in China.英国、日本、俄国、德国、法国和比利时分别在中国划定了自己的势力范围。The ed States, which had not acquired any territorial cessions, proposed in 1899 that there be an “open door” policy in China, whereby all foreign countries would have equal duties and privileges in all treaty ports within and outside the various spheres of influence.美国,由于没有获得任何领土割让,于1899年宣布在中国实行“门户开放”政策,通过这些政策,所有外国列强都在他们势力范围内外的通商口岸获得了平等的义务和特权。All but Russia agreed to the ed States overture.所有国家除俄国外都同意了美国的提议。 /201512/412279 The last ruler of the Xia Dynasty was Jie, a rare despot in history, who was blamed for the fall of the Xia.夏的最后一位国君桀是历史上少有的暴君,对夏朝的灭亡负有责任。He led a luxury and decayed life, a-bused his power and increased suppression, which resulted in the intensified contradiction.他生活奢侈腐朽,滥用权力,对人民进行残酷镇压,使得阶级矛盾尖锐。Filled with hatred for Jie, the people fled in large numbers, and even his court officials cursed him and hoped that he would die early.人们心中充满仇恨,纷纷逃离,甚至大臣都诅咒夏桀,希望他早点儿死。Shang Tang took this opportunity to revolt and dethroned Jie, who died in exile in Nanchao. The Xia Dynasty ended.商汤乘机 率兵伐夏,大败夏桀,桀逃到南巢死去。With the development of productivity and the increase of captures, the private ownership came into being gradually and doomed to be reflected in politics. That Oi abolished the Abdication and substituted it for the hereditary is the best illustration of it.由于生产力的进步和俘虏的增加,私有财产制度逐渐出现了。达到一定的限度,私有制度就要在政治上有所表现,夏后启废“禅让”为帝位世袭便是最好的说明。The hereditary monarchy is more advanced than Abdication, but as a new system it encountered various hindrances.帝位世袭是—种比“禅让”含有进步意义的新制度,但凡是一种新制度,总要遭到各种形式的阻碍。The feud among Xia, You Hu, Yi and Han Zhuo is a battle between the new system and the decayed power.夏后氏与有扈氏、夷羿、寒浞间长期战斗,正是新制度与社会腐朽力量间的斗争。It is in-evitable for the new system to win the battle by contending with the old one, for the growing force couldn’t be contained. The rule of Shao Kang is a good example of it.新制度经过斗争,必然要取得胜利,因为正在发展着的力量是不可遏止的,“少康中兴”就是很好的例子。 /201510/407417江苏盐城市妇科怎么样建湖县中医院治疗妇科多少钱

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