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盐城市第一人民医院看男科好吗Long before Sony Pictures Entertainment revealed in November that it had been hacked by a group calling itself the Guardians of Peace, another division of Sony was attacked by cyber attackers.索尼影业今年11月宣布,公司遭受了自称为“和平卫士”黑客组织的攻击。而在很早以前,索尼的另一个部门就遭遇过网络攻击。Between April and May 2011, Sony Computer Entertainment’s online gaming service, PlayStation Network, and its streaming media service, Qriocity—plus Sony Online Entertainment, the company’s in-house game developer and publisher—were hacked by LulzSec, a splinter group of Anonymous, the hacker collective.在2011年4月至5月期间,索尼电脑公司的在线游戏务平台PlayStation Network、流媒体务Qriocity,以及索尼内部的游戏开发和发行部门索尼在线公司,相继遭到黑客团体匿名者的分组织LulzSec的攻击。The online services were shut down between April 20 and May 15 as Sony attempted to secure the breach, which put the sensitive personal data for over 100 million customers at risk. The chief executive of Sony Computer Entertainment America at the time, Kazuo Hirai, wrote the following on the PlayStation blog:当年4月20日至5月15日,索尼关闭了上述在线务,试图修复漏洞,以切实保护超过1亿用户的敏感个人信息。时任索尼(美国)电脑公司首席执行官平井一夫在PlayStation的客上写道:“We are taking a number of steps to prevent future breaches, including enhanced levels of data protection and encryption; enhanced ability to detect software intrusions, unauthorized access and unusual activity patterns; additional firewalls; establishment of a new data center in an undisclosed location with increased security; and the naming of a new Chief Information Security Officer (CISO).”“我们采取了许多措施来阻止未来产生漏洞,包括提高数据保护和加密级别,增强发现软件入侵、越权存取和异常活动的能力,加设防火墙,在秘密地点建立安全级别更高的全新数据中心,任命新的首席信息安全官(CISO)。”Hirai is now president and CEO of Sony.如今,平井一夫已是索尼集团的首席执行官。Philip Reitinger was appointed CISO of Sony Corporation America in September 2011, shortly after that year’s breach. This September, he left Sony to start his own security consulting business, VisionSpear. John Scimone replaced him.在被黑不久后的2011年9月,菲利普o雷丁格被任命为索尼(美国)公司首席信息安全官。而在今年9月,菲利普离开索尼,创立了自己的安全咨询公司VisionSpear。约翰o希莫内接替了他的工作。Globally, Sony has more than 140,000 employees and more than 100 subsidiaries. “Not only did Reitinger have his hands full,” says Gary S. Miliefsky, CEO of cyber security firm SnoopWall, “but some people say that his team could not manage all the corporate network ‘touch points.’ So there was no centralization of security events information management.” Reitinger’s departure this year also created a security leadership gap at Sony when the company needed it most, Miliefsky adds.索尼在全球拥有超过14万名员工和100多家子公司。网络安全公司SnoopWall的首席执行官加里oSo米里夫斯基表示:“尽管雷丁格忙得焦头烂额,但有些人认为,他的团队无力管理公司网络的所有‘接触点’。所以说,索尼并没有集中管理安全事件信息。”米里夫斯基补充道,雷丁格今年的离职也造成了索尼安全部门领导层的空缺,而当时恰恰是索尼最需要这个岗位发挥作用的时候。Sony Computer Entertainment and Sony Pictures Entertainment declined to comment.索尼电脑公司和索尼影视公司拒绝发表。Sony SNE 2.21% learned a lot of painful lessons from the 2011 breach, says Lewis Ward, research director for gaming at the market research firm IDC. The company reported a hard cost of 1 million, but Ward estimates that the hack ended up costing Sony more than 0 million through the end of 2012 as it worked to clean up the mess and reinforce its defenses. “On the gaming side, nothing like the PlayStation Network attack had happened before, or has happened since,” he says. “It was unprecedented in gaming.”市场研究公司IDC的游戏研究总监路易斯o沃德表示,索尼从2011年的风波中得到了许多惨痛的教训。该公司宣布黑客攻击造成的直接损失达到1.71亿美元,但沃德估算说,截止2012年底,被黑事件造成的损失要超过2.5亿美元,因为该公司还要收拾残局、加强防卫。沃德称:“在游戏界,类似索尼PlayStation Network被黑的事件之前没有过,之后也没再发生过。这是游戏界空间绝后的一例。”Sony and Microsoft MSFT -0.64% have experienced smaller breaches of their online gaming networks since 2011, including another PlayStation Network attack in October 2011 and a PlayStation Store attack earlier this month. But the April 2011 attack stands alone for its size and scope.自2011年以来,索尼和微软的在线游戏网络相继遭遇一些小规模的攻击。比如,2011年10月,PlayStation Network再次遭袭,就在本月早些时候,PlayStation Store也遭到黑客攻击。但无论是就规模,还是就范围而言,2011年4月发生的那次被黑事件都是独一无二的。That’s because the PlayStation Network suffered multiple kinds of attacks, Miliefsky says. One was a classic data breach—the release of otherwise secure information. The second was a distributed denial-of-service attack, or DDoS, that left the network inaccessible to gamers. Sony has since improved its stance against both attack types—for example, it’s now a strong partner of Amazon Web Services, the dominant cloud computing player, improving its odds against a DDoS—and Hirai has improved collaboration across Sony’s many divisions since taking the company’s top job.米里夫斯基表示,这是因为PlayStation Network那次遭受了多种类型的攻击。其中之一是经典的数据泄露——原本安全的数据被黑客公布。第二种是分布式拒绝务攻击,这种攻击会让玩家无法访问网络。从那以后,索尼就强化了应对这两种攻击的防护措施。比如,索尼如今携手统治级的云计算产品亚马逊网络务系统,提高了防御分布式拒绝务攻击的成功率。此外,在出任索尼集团掌门人之后,平井一夫着手改善了公司各个部门的合作方式。But there’s one major factor that prevented Sony from better using those 2011 lessons in 2014: organizational structure. The company has long had a reputation for operating in silos, says Michael Pachter, a game analyst at Wedbush Securities, and no silo is more isolated than Sony Pictures Entertainment. “It’s the [Sony] movie guys who don’t talk to anybody,” Pachter says. “They learned nothing from the PlayStation Network breach. I don’t know the movie guys, but the game people have been very friendly and open-minded and would love to work with the Sony movie guys.”然而,有一个重要因素使得索尼在2014年没能更好地利用2011年得到的惨痛教训,那就是该公司的组织结构。韦德布什券公司分析师迈克尔o帕切特表示,索尼多年来以孤岛式的运营闻名,而索尼影视公司则是那个最孤立的岛屿。帕切特说:“从不与其他任何人说话的,就是(索尼)那些搞电影的家伙。他们没有从PlayStation Network被攻击中吸取教训。我不了解那些搞电影的员工,但索尼游戏部门的员工一直很友好很开放,应该会愿意同电影部门的员工合作才是。”This type of corporate structure is hardly limited to Sony, but it helps explain why such a challenging period in 2011 didn’t better prepare the company to avoid a similar scenario in 2014. “Most organizations are in silos,” says Tim Eades, CEO of the security company vArmour. “They need better sharing and collaboration solution in security between their divisions and their supply chain. If Sony had that, it would have been stronger.”这种公司结构并非索尼公司所独有,但它有助于解释索尼为何在2011年遭遇这样的挑战后,仍没有做好更充分的准备以避免在2014年重蹈覆辙。安全公司vArmour的首席执行官蒂姆o伊德斯表示:“大多数机构都是孤岛式的。他们需要更好地在各个部门和供应链之间分享安全问题的解决方案,并展开更有效的合作。如果索尼这么做了,它就会更加强大。”The problem? Sony didn’t address its organizational issues fast enough after the 2011 hack, Miliesky says. “From that moment on, their CIO should have implemented corporate-wide protection measures and beefed up info-sec training for employees that would be standardized across the organization,” he says. “The tools and techniques they decided to use to protect the public-facing PlayStation Network was a reactive approach—’We were attacked at point X by Y, so let’s defend point X with tools to stop successful exploitation by these kinds of Y attacks.’ It was completely reactive, not proactive.”问题在哪?米里夫斯基表示,在2011年被黑客袭击后,索尼没有足够迅速地处理组织结构问题。他说:“从那时起,他们的首席信息官就应该在全公司推行防护措施,加强员工的信息安全培训,这些应当成为公司上下的标准化培训内容。就面向大众的PlayStation Network而言,索尼采用了完全被动的防护措施——‘我们在X点被Y攻击了,所以我们用各种工具来强化X点,避免让与Y类似的攻击再次得逞。’这完全是被动防御,而不是主动防御。”It’s a particularly knotty issue for a company as large as Sony. “The attack surface that Sony has is vast and requires significant investment and, unfortunately, time to deploy,” Eades says.对于索尼这样的大公司而言,做好防御尤其困难。伊德斯表示:“索尼可以被攻击的面很广,需要大量投资和时间来部署防御,这的确令人遗憾。”The email correspondence that leaked in the wake of the recent hack showed that Sony Pictures Entertainment may have been operating without adequate protection against phishing attacks, remote-access Trojans, password management policies, proper use of encryption, data storage, and backups, Miliesky says.米里夫斯基称,在最近的黑客攻击中泄露的电子邮件通讯,明索尼影视公司没有采取足够措施来防范网络钓鱼攻击和远程访问木马,没有有效的密码管理策略,也没有恰当地进行加密、数据储存和备份操作。“Ultimately, SPE was wide open,” Miliesky says. “They probably had a firewall and antivirus and told their CISO ‘everything is safe and secure over here,” if that conversation even happened. A proper inventory control, vulnerability assessment, and employee training at SPE would have revealed much to the CISO.”米里夫斯基表示:“最后,索尼影视公司等于是门户大开。他们很可能只是装了个防火墙和杀毒软件,然后告诉他们的首席信息安全官‘这里一切安全’——如果真的有这类对话的话。如果索尼影视公司有恰当的存储控制、漏洞评估和员工培训机制,首席信息安全官本可以知道得更多。”Sony has improved its internal coordination, thanks to both Hirai’s leadership and the return of Andrew House as president and Group CEO of Sony Computer Entertainment, Pachter says. For example, Sony Pictures Television is currently filming the original live action television series, Powers, for the PlayStation Network. But the budding synergy between divisions wasn’t enough to stop the most recent cyber attack against Sony, says P.J. McNealy, CEO of the market research firm Digital World Research.帕切特表示,拜平井一夫的领导和安德鲁o豪斯重新担任索尼电脑公司总裁和集团首席执行官所赐,索尼的内部协调已经得到了改善。比如,索尼影视电视公司目前就正在为PlayStation Network拍摄原创实景真人系列电视剧Powers。然而,市场调研公司Digital World Research的首席执行官P. J. 麦克尼利表示:仍处于萌芽期的部门合作尚不足以阻止近来针对索尼的网络攻击。In 2011, Sony Computer Entertainment worked hard to win back the trust of its gaming customers, and today it leads both Microsoft and Nintendo in the gaming console market with its PlayStation 4. “Consumers are quick to forgive on this front because at the end of the day it’s an entertainment product,” McNealy says. “I was surprised at how quickly the user numbers spiked back after the patch was fixed and the network went back online [in May 2011]. Consumers are accepting that this is the new world we live in, where hacks take place.”2011年,索尼电脑公司做出了大量努力来赢回其游戏消费者的信赖。如今,索尼借PlayStation 4在游戏主机市场取得了对微软和任天堂的领先。麦克尼利说:“消费者在这方面很容易原谅,因为到头来这只是个产品。在(2011年5月)打好补丁,PS主机平台网络重新上线后,消费者回归的速度让我感到十分惊讶。消费者已经开始接受这样一个事实:我们所在的是一个全新的世界,黑客攻击总是难免的。”Experts agree that while Sony’s reputation is suffering in the wake of the most recent attack, it is hardly the only company at risk from such issues.专家也承认,尽管由于最近的被黑事件,索尼蒙受了名誉损失,但它不是唯一一家由于这类问题而陷入危机的公司。“Can any corporation really firewall itself to be invulnerable to attacks today?” McNealy asked. “We’ve now seen hackers breach major corporations and major retailers. Everyone’s a target for hackers. There’s been a real shift in the hacking community from unleashing viruses through emails on select holidays to attract headlines 10 years ago, to trying to grab personal data and information.”麦克尼利问道:“如今真的有公司能保自己不遭受黑客攻击吗?我们现在亲眼看到,黑客能攻破大型公司和零售商。每个人都是黑客的目标。黑客的行为已经有了真正的转变,他们不再像10年前那样通过在特定节日发送病毒邮件来取头条,如今他们正试图窃取个人数据和信息。”Joseph Demarest, assistant director of the cyber division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, earlier this month declared to members of Congress that 90% of businesses could not have stopped the Sony Pictures Entertainment attack.联邦调查局网络安全部副主任约瑟夫o德马雷斯特于本月早些时候对国会表示,90%的公司都无法抵御索尼影视公司遭受的攻击。“I agree with that number,” Miliefsky says. “But the real issue is today’s security posture and employee training. The biggest weakness at Sony Pictures Entertainment was the employees. If you can’t train them to behave better, then what can you expect but another successful breach?”米里夫斯基说:“我同意这个比例。但真正的问题是如今的安全态势和员工培训。索尼影视公司最大的弱点在于员工。如果你不能加强员工培训,让他们改善自己的行为,那么除了等着被黑客再次成功入侵,你还能指望什么?”(财富中文网) /201412/350914 Stewart Butterfield, co-founder of Slack, the communication app for office workers that has been growing like a weed, does not mince his words when he discusses the changes to working life caused by smartphones and the sp of cloud software.近来发展迅猛的办公聊天工具Slack的联合创始人斯图尔特巴特菲尔德(Stewart Butterfield),在谈到智能手机和云软件的广泛传播给办公生活带来的变化时,并没有拐弯抹角。Slack represents one response to this trend. It is a chronological flow of team conversation akin to a group chat, or a Facebook news feed. Workers post their contributions — messages, links to websites or files — into this searchable repository, organised into channels.Slack是顺应这股潮流的一个代表。它是一款类似群组聊天或者Facebook信息流功能的群聊时间流应用。员工们将自己贡献的内容——信息、网页链接或者文件——放入这个可搜索的、按频道分类的信息库中。A rival vision is represented by Dropbox, a cloud storage system which also claims to be seeing wide adoption in offices but which puts files, not a stream of chatter, at the centre.而Dropbox——一个同样号称在办公室广为使用的云端存储系统——则代表着相反的观点。不同于Slack,Dropbox的关注点不是聊天信息流,而是文件本身。This view holds that workers will congregate around more static repositories of information, communicating inside or alongside the files.该观点认为,员工们将以更为静态的信息库为核心,在文件内部或者围绕着文件展开交流。Mr Butterfield does not hesitate before delivering a characteristically curt put-down of Dropbox: “They’re probably just wrong.”对于Dropbox的观点,巴特菲尔德没有犹豫,以他特有的不客气简洁回击:“或许他们错了。”If the boss of the hottest new app to enter office life has flaws, a lack of certainty is not one of them.如果这位当前最炙手可热的办公应用软件的老板有什么缺点的话,缺乏确定信心绝不会是其中之一。Slack’s headlong growth suggests he has hit on something, though at less than two years old it is still early. Mr Butterfield says the service has been growing exponentially, adding new users at a rate of about 5 per cent a week. Slack says 1.1m people use its service each day and that it has 300,000 users covered by subscriptions.Slack的急速增长说明巴特菲尔德的观点有一定道理——尽管对于创建不足两年的Slack来说,这样的结论还为时尚早。巴特菲尔德称,Slack的业务呈指数增长,用户量每周增长5%。Slack称每日有110万人使用其务,并有30万名订阅用户。“It’s a much more profound change than people realise,” Mr Butterfield says of the way mobile and cloud technologies are affecting work. “The endpoints are people — not documents, or files, or content, or ‘stuff’ in the generic sense. The number of people for whom data stored in the form of a file is the most important thing is getting smaller and smaller all the time.”“这是比人们意识到的更加深刻的改变,”巴特菲尔德谈到手机和云技术对工作方式的影响时说。“它们的端点是人,而不是文本、文件、内容或者普遍意义上的‘东西’。以文件为主要形式来存储数据的人越来越少。”Thoughtful and intense, as well as flip and dismissive, Mr Butterfield is acerbic at one moment and liable to dive into an extended technical explanation the next.巴特菲尔德言语犀利,傲慢无礼,却又富有见地和热情。他往往这一刻还尖刻地着什么,下一刻却又投入地向人详细阐明一项技术。If devising the formula for a successful viral internet service is like catching lightning in a bottle, he has the distinction of now having done it twice: Flickr, the photo-sharing site he co-founded in 2004 and sold to Yahoo the next year, was one of the first signs of the social media wave that followed.如果说成功设计出一款广受欢迎的互联网务就像用瓶子捕捉闪电一样困难,那么他已经两次完成了这近乎不可能的事:他于2004年与人合伙创建了照片共享网站Flickr,并于次年将其卖给雅虎(Yahoo)。Flickr是后来的社交媒体浪潮的最早萌芽之一。Slack takes its own cue from social networking. But getting the formula correct involves much more than an aptitude for finding the right social chemistry, its boss says.巴特菲尔德说,Slack本身是受社交网络的启发,不过找到正确配方,所需要的远远不止发现正确的社交“化学反应”的能力。It is also about making use of what he calls the “profusion of software” inside companies. With more corporate functions being automated through cloud services — from keeping track of customer orders to monitoring IT systems — Slack is designed to integrate their output into a single stream of communication: a notification could be posted to the stream, for instance, each time a new order comes in or a customer tweets about a product.Slack的成功还在于利用他所称的公司内部“丰富的软件资源”。当前,越来越多的企业职能——从追踪客户订单到监控IT系统——通过云务实现了自动化。Slack的设计意图就是整合企业信息输出,将其汇总为单一的信息流:例如,每当产生新订单或者客户针对产品发tweet时,信息流中都可以发通知。That makes Slack a digital spine for a business, with a single search box for tracking both human- and machine-generated data.这就使得Slack成为了企业中的信息柱。不论是人还是机器产生的数据,都共用一个搜索框,以供追踪。The aim is to create “a positive feedback loop, where the more attention you pay to it, the more it becomes something that saves time in switching between multiple obligations”.Slack的目标是建立“一个正反馈环,你越重视它,它就越能在切换不同职能中节省时间”。The formula has been a hit with venture capital investors as much as with users. Slack has aly raised 0m in its short life, with the most recent funding round putting a valuation on it of .8bn — notable even in the current buoyant funding environment in Silicon Valley.该软件不仅广受用户欢迎,还是风投家们竞相追逐的对象。创立时间不长,Slack的筹资额却已达到3.4亿美元。在最新一轮融资中,它的估值达到28亿美元——即便是在当前融资环境一片大好的硅谷,这也是个了不起的数字。Asked why Slack has raised so much, Mr Butterfield says: “Because we could.” With more than a quarter of its users paying for the service, Slack is “pretty much even on a cash-flow basis aly,” he says.当被问到Slack为什么能筹到这么多款项时,巴特菲尔德答道:“因为我们有能力。”当前用户中有超过四分之一的人付费,“Slack可以说已经建立在现金流的基础上了,”他说道。But stashing away money in the good times could become a competitive advantage in a bust. “I wouldn’t wish a crash on anybody, but the best-case scenario for us is that money becomes harder to get,” he says.不过要趁着日子好过时把钱存好,这样到了日子不好过的时候,这笔钱就会成为竞争优势。“我倒不是希望哪家公司垮掉,不过对我们来说,最有利的情况就是,筹资环境变难,”他说道。To justify the sky-high expectations, Mr Butterfield will have to prove that Slack is more than just the latest faddish office-messaging system. The challenge now is the one that faces all new enterprise software companies with a bright idea: to move fast enough to keep ahead of the copycats, while finding a way to steer between giant competitors that might see Slack as a rival and try to crush it.为了达到外界高企的预期,巴特菲尔德必须要明,Slack不仅仅是一个风靡一时的办公聊天系统而已。Slack所面临的问题也是当前所有新兴的、有着优秀创意的软件公司都要面临的问题:既要快速创新把模仿者甩在后面,又要找到办法在可能视Slack为对手、试图将之摧毁的同行巨头之间周旋。The race to keep Slack’s user numbers growing exponentially turns on overcoming barriers to its adoption. A key product enhancement planned for later this year, for instance, would greatly simplify things for corporate IT departments that want to control the many different Slack group chats that may have sprung up inside their businesses. Slack is also adapting its service to meet different international sensitivities.为保持用户数量呈指数增长的态势,Slack着手破除阻碍用户使用的障碍。例如,Slack计划于今年晚些时候进行一次关键的产品升级。升级后的Slack将大大简化企业IT部的工作,方便其控制企业内同时进行的不同群组聊天。Slack还在调整务以满足不同的国际需求。Avoiding head-on confrontation with the giants of the software industry, meanwhile, means not challenging their own businesses directly. “In this moment now, we have effectively no competition and we’re young and new enough that no one hates us yet,” Mr Butterfield says.同时,要避免与软件行业巨头产生正面冲突,就意味着不要直接向其业务发起挑战。“此时此刻,我们实际上还没有竞争者。我们是年轻的新面孔,还没有人怨恨我们,”巴特菲尔德说道。His plan for keeping it that way is to go broad rather than deep: find millions more users for the existing service, rather than add many new functions that suck in more and more of its users’ attention.为保持当前局面,他的计划是拓宽覆盖面,而不是深化产品功能:发掘更多的客户使用现有产品,而不是增加许多新功能吸引现有客户的注意力。“People are paying us between and 0 a year [per user]. If we can get 100m people to do that, that looks like a pretty good business,” he says.“(每名)用户每年向我们付80到100美元。如果我们能拥有1亿名付费用户,那将是一笔相当不错的生意,”他说道。The biggest danger of all, though, is that some new piece of software will do to Slack what it is trying to do to more established software companies: offer a service that is even more basic and easy to use, and that starts to generate network effects as groups of workers find it slots almost unnoticeably into their office lives.然而,当前最大的风险是出现某种新的软件,用Slack对付那些更老牌软件公司的方法来对付Slack:为用户提供一种更基础、更便于使用的软件,当员工群体发现该软件潜移默化地改变了他们的办公生活时,就会产生网络效应。“The thing I worry about most is someone coming up with something that is much, much simpler but delivers most of the value — like they find the magic formula so that you can get 80 per cent of the value of Slack but with only 20 per cent of the complexity.”“我最担心的是有人设计出一款简单得多,却能实现Slack多数价值的应用程序——好比他们找到了某种魔法配方,其复杂程度只有Slack的20%,却能实现Slack 80%的价值。” /201508/389950盐城人流医院哪家最好盐城包皮过长要不要手术

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