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来源:管大夫    发布时间:2017年10月22日 14:30:29    编辑:admin         

Giving out free condoms at school is not a surefire way to avoid teenage pregnancy - or it might not be enough.在校园里发放免费避套并不是一个防止青少年怀的稳妥之法--或者说这可能还不够。Access to condoms in schools increases teen fertility rates by about 10 per cent, according to a new study by the University Of Notre Dame.圣母大学的一项最新研究表明,在学校里能够获得避套的情况下,青少年们的生育率提高了10%。However the increase happened in schools where no counseling was provided when condoms were given out - and giving out guidance as well as birth control could have the opposite effect, economists Kasey Buckles and Daniel Hungerman said in the study.在这份研究中,经济学家凯茜·巴克尔斯和丹尼尔·亨格曼表示,生育率有所上升的学校在发放避套的时候没有提供咨询务,而在提供生育控制措施的同时提供指导会起到正面的效果。Access to other kinds of birth control, such as the contraceptive pill, IUDs and implants, has been shown to lower teen fertility rates - but condoms might have opposite consequences due to their failure rate as well as the time and frequency at which they#39;re used.而其他避措施,例如避药和植入宫内避器,在降低生育率方面确有其效--但是由于破损以及使用时间和次数的原因,避套有可能带来相反的结果。Buckles and Hungerman looked at 22 school districts located in 12 different states, using data from the 1990s. Times have changed aly and teenagers today are overall less likely to have sex and less likely to become pregnant, they wrote. Most of the free condoms programs in the study began in 1992 or 1993 and about two thirds involved mandatory counseling.巴克尔斯和亨格曼在美国12个州的22个学区进行了调查,使用自20世纪90年代以来的数据。随着时间的推移,总体而言,如今的青少年发生性行为次数更少,怀几率也更小。研究中涉及的大部分免费避套项目开始于1992年或1993年,其中大约三分之二提供强制性咨询务。The 10 per cent increased occurred as a result of schools that gave out condoms without counseling, Buckles and Hungerman said. #39;These fertility effects may have been attenuated, or perhaps even reversed, when counseling was mandated as part of condom provision,#39; they wrote. Teenage girls were also more likely to develop gonorrhea when condoms were given for free - and again, the increase happened as a result of schools giving out condoms without counseling. Access to contraceptives in general has been shown to lower teen fertility, Buckles and Hungerman noted, or in some cases had no effect at all.巴克尔斯和亨格曼表示,青少年生育率上升10%是因为学校发放避套但没有提供咨询务。但是,提供避套时提供强制性咨询务可减弱甚至颠倒这种生育率影响。免费提供避套也会提高女生患性病的机率,而这也是学校没有提供咨询务导致的。总体而言,避措施降低了青少年生育率,但在某些情况下并没有任何效果。But condoms might have a different impact because of several factors, such as the fact that their failure rate is more important than that of other contraceptives. Condoms also rely #39;more heavily on the male partner#39;, which is an important factor given that an unplanned pregnancy will have different consequences for each gender, Buckle and Hungerman wrote.但是,由于失效等种种原因,避套可能产生不同的效果。鉴于意外怀会给双方造成不同的影响,避套也极大地取决于男性一方。使用避套的时间也是为什么它的效果与其他避措施不同的原因。Free condom programs in schools could have led to two additional births per 1,000 teenage women so far, Buckle and Hungerman found. This could increase to 5 extra births per 1,000 teenage girls if the country#39;s entire high-school-aged population had access to condoms.目前,巴克尔斯和亨格曼发现,学校的免费避套项目导致每1000名女生怀次数增加2次。如果全美的高中生都可获得免费避套,将导致每1000名女生的怀次数增加5次。Condom distribution programs could promote the use of condoms over more efficient birth control methods, drive schools to use their resources for condom distribution rather than more effective programs, or might encourage #39;risky#39; sexual behaviors, Buckle and Hungerman wrote. But these findings should be used with caution when reflecting on policy proposals, they added.此外,避法发放项目可能使更多人选择使用避套,而不是其他更有效的避措施,从而促使学校开展避套发放项目而不是其他更有效的项目,这或许也会怂恿“危险”的性行为。然而,巴克尔斯和亨格曼表示,在反思政策建议的时候,因谨慎使用这些研究发现。Health clinics based in schools that offered contraceptives were shown to significantly lower teen fertility in a 2014 study. #39;If health clinics can effectively combine contraception access and counseling, this may lead to very different effects than access alone,#39; Buckle and Hungerman said.在2014年的研究中,学校医务室提供避药极大地降低了青少年生育率。巴克尔斯和亨格曼表示,如果医务室能够有效结合避措施和咨询务,将可能产生与仅仅提供避措施非常不同的效果。 /201607/454499。

Reheating a takeaway (or if you’reAmerican, take-out) may seem like a good idea at the end of a hard day – butmany of us have learnt that there can be a heavy price to pay. Around onemillion people in the UK suffer food poisoning each year, and it’s oftenbecause we have failed to take a few simple steps.辛苦一天下来, 加热外卖食物可能看起来是个不错的主意– 但我们许多人了解, 这可能要付出沉重的代价. 每年英国约有一百万人食物中毒, 常常是因为我们没能采取几个简单的步骤.Michael Mosley of the TV programme Trust MeI’m a Doctor uses a thermal camera to analyse whether reheatedtakeaway food is safe or not.电视节目“相信我, 我是医生”中的莫斯利用热像仪分析加热的外卖食品是否安全.As Mosley explains, the trick is to heatthe food until it is 82C (176F) throughout to be sure that you can kill anyharmful bacteria.正如莫斯利解释的那样, 诀窍就是把食物加热到82摄氏度(176华氏), 热透为止, 以确保能将有害细菌尽数杀灭.That’s easier said thandone: while the outside may seem to be steaming, the inside could have remainedcooler –hosting a pocket of living bacteria. It’s for thisreason that it’s important to stir the dish so that all the food is heated evenly.这说起来容易做起来难: 虽然外表看着似乎在冒热气, 但里面可能仍然是凉的– 寄宿着一团活菌. 因为这个原因, 所以搅拌菜肴让食物各部分得到均匀加热很重要.Even after having followed these steps, youshouldn’t reheat a meal more than once. Each time it cools down, you offer moreopportunities for the harmful bacteria to multiply, making it harder to killthem all off the next time you stick them in the oven or microwave.即使遵循了这些步骤, 也不应当多次加热饭菜. 每次饭菜凉了, 就为有害细菌的繁殖提供了更多机会, 下一次把它们放进烤箱或微波炉里时便更难以杀光细菌.This is particularly true for oneparticular takeaway favourite – rice – which can host spores of a nasty bugcalled Bacillus cereus. When left in food, the bacteria produces toxins thattrigger diarrhoea and vomiting. Unfortunately, these toxins are “heat stable”meaningthat even if you heat the rice to the point of killing all the bacteria, thetoxins will survive –and you’ll soon notice the effects of ingesting those poisons.对特别受人喜爱的外卖食品米饭来说尤其如此, 米饭中可寄生蜡样芽孢杆菌的孢子. 这种细菌残留在食物中时,可产生毒素,引起腹泻和呕吐. 不幸的是, 这些毒素“耐热”, 意味着即使把米饭加热到杀光细菌的温度, 毒素也依然存活– 不久, 吃下这些毒素的后果就会显现.If you do want to save your leftovers, youshould cool the rice quickly – before the bacteria can start churning out thosetoxins – and refrigerate within an hour of cooking. Otherwise you really are“playing Russian roulette with your guts”, says Mosley.如果你想保留剩饭, 就应当迅速冷却米饭– 在细菌开始产生那些毒素前 – 并在烹饪后一小时内冷藏. 否则你真是在“用内脏玩俄罗斯轮盘赌”, 莫斯利说. /201604/438896。

A report based on a survey of nearly 30,000 respondents from all provinces in China reflecting the life experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) people was launched at the ed Nations Compound in Beijing.日前,一份反映女同性恋、男同性恋、双性恋、跨性别和双性(LGBTI)人士生存现状的调查报告在北京联合国大楼发布,该调查覆盖我国所有省份的近3万名受访者。The report finds that many LGBTI people in China still live in the shadows, with only 5% of them willing to live their diversity openly. It shows that the majority of LGBTI people continue to face discrimination in many aspects of their lives, most importantly within the family, where the deepest forms of rejection and abuse reside, followed by schools and the workplace.该报告发现,我国许多LGBTI人士依然生活在阴影当中,其中仅5%愿意;出柜;。该报告显示,大部分LGBTI人士在生活的许多方面仍遭受歧视,尤其是在家庭内部,来自家庭的排拒和凌辱是最为根深蒂固的,学校和工作单位次之。The survey shows that access to health and social services remains difficult when one#39;s sexual orientation or gender diversity is known to, or even just suspected by, service providers.调查显示,当一个人的性倾向或性别与常人有所差异或者甚至仅仅是有嫌疑时,那么他们获得健康和社会务仍然是很困难的。Most importantly, however, the survey paints a country in transition, where the majority of people do not hold negative nor stereotypical views of LGBTI people, with young people being more open towards and accepting of sexual and gender diversity.不过,最重要的是,该调查表明我国公众的观点正在发生变化,大多数人对LGBTI人士并未持负面或刻板态度,年轻人对于性及性别多元现状的态度更为开放、包容。Jointly implemented by UNDP, Peking University Sociology Department and the Beijing LGBT Center, with great support from dozens of national and local community, business and media organizations, the survey aims to provide baseline information for both community and institutional organizations.由联合国开发计划署、北京大学社会学系和北京同志中心联合实施、由来自全国和当地社区、商业和媒体组织的大力持,这项调查的目的是为社区和机构组织提供基准信息。;LGBTI people represent some of the most marginalized and vulnerable populations in Asia and the Pacific, including China,; said Agi Veres, Country Director of UNDP China. ;Attention to their needs is therefore essential if we are to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.;联合国开发计划署驻华代表处主任文霭洁表示:“LGBTI代表了包括中国在内的亚洲和太平洋地区一些最边缘化的弱势群体,因此,如果我们要实现可持续发展目标,就必须留意他们的需求。” /201605/446855。