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But you’re still smacking your foot directly on the ground, without any padding. Wouldn’t this lead to more foot injuries? Possibly. And, of course, it takes time to develop calluses on your feet thick enough to make barefoot running comfortable. And I suppose running in cold weather could be a problem. So like most things in science, there’s more than one side to this story. Running barefoot may have certain advantages, but there are some pitfalls, too.【生词注释】smack v.啪的一声甩(或扔等)padding n.衬垫callus n.老茧,皮肤硬厚处pitfall n.隐患,易犯的错误但是光脚跑步你仍然是将脚直接猛烈地接触地面,中间没有任何衬垫。这会不会导致脚受伤?当然很有可能,而且要花上一段时间脚才能生出足够厚的老茧让你舒地跑步。我猜在寒冷的天气中跑步也是个难题。像大多数科学中的事情一样,这个说法不只有一面。光脚跑步有一定的优势,但是也有些隐患。201110/159382Wow! That is nearly ten times greater than the difference observed in the whales. Pretty amazing, right? But, why are they such pitch perfectionists? Well, one hypothesis has to do with the Doppler shift. Really? You mean the acoustic effect that makes the pitch of an ambulance siren sound as though itrsquo;s higher as the ambulance approaches and lower after it passes you. Exactly. Since the whalersquo;s pitch is so accurate, they hypothesize that other whales may be able to locate an individual by listening for a slight shift in pitch that would be caused by the Doppler effect as the two whales move towards or away from each other. Thats amazing. Hey,I wonder if any blue whales offer singing lessons.哇!那比观察到的鲸鱼中的差距要大10倍。很令人惊讶,对吧?但是为什么它们能发出如此完美的声音吗?一种猜想是与多普勒频移有关。真的吗?你是说声学效应使救护车临近时鸣笛声更响亮,而当它经过你时,声音会变弱。正是。因为蓝鲸的音高非常精准,当2只蓝鲸彼此游近或远离时,它们倾听由多普勒频移引起的音高中的微弱变化,就能推定其它蓝鲸的位置。那真令人惊奇。嘿,我在想是否有蓝鲸教唱歌的课。词语注释:Doppler shift 多普勒频移162935Singh: India Has Sufficient Food to Overcome Shortages印总理:印度有足够的粮食度过干旱 The Indian prime minister says the country has sufficient food stocks, despite a drought in nearly half the country. But there are concerns the drought will intensify poverty in the countryside.印度总理表示,尽管全国将近一半的地区遭受旱灾,但印度有充足的粮食库存来度过难关。不过,人们担心,干旱将会加剧农村地区的贫困情形。As the driest monsoon season in seven years raises the specter of failed harvests, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh says bumper food grain production in the past two years will help India overcome any shortfall in food production this year.印度正在经历七年来最干燥的雨季,导致人们对今年粮食歉收的恐慌上升。但是印度总理辛格(Manmohan Singh)说,前两年粮食大丰收有助于印度克今年可能面临的任何粮食产量不足的问题。Mr. Singh was addressing a conference of state leaders Wednesday.印度总理辛格星期三在新德里举行的一个会议上向来自各邦的领导人发表演说。"We had record production and procurement of food grains in both 2007-2008 and 2008-," he said. "We thus have adequate food stocks, and there is no cause of concern or fear of shortages of food grains in the country as a whole."他说:“我们在2007到2008和2008到两个年度粮食生产和粮食采购都创下记录。我们有充足的粮食库存,因此,不需要担心整个国家会粮食不足,更没必要恐慌。”The government has sufficient stockpiles of staples such as wheat and rice. The government has also said it will step up imports of items such as edible oils and lentils if needed. But officials say India will not publicly announce its plans to import food because this tends to drive up world market prices.印度政府的主食储存,包括小麦和稻米,都很充足。政府也表示,如果有需要的话,将会增加食用油和扁豆等食物的进口。不过,官方人员说,印度将不会公开宣布粮食进口计划,以避免刺激全球市场价格上升。Although the country may be able to stave off shortages, food prices are surging, hitting poor people especially hard. The drought is also expected to reduce incomes of farmers, many of whom have not been able to sow crops due to lack of rains in the monsoon season. Nearly 700 million people depend on agriculture for their livelihood in India. 虽然印度也许可以避开粮食短缺的问题,但是粮食价格依然大幅上涨,对贫穷人口的生计造成特别严重的打击。干旱也导致农民收入下降,由于雨季降水不足,农民无法播种。印度有将近七亿人以务农为生。The prime minister is stressing the need for measures to help farmers. He has called on all states to quickly implement a rural job scheme that provides poor families with 100 days of work a year. He says this will act as a "safety net" for farmers whose crops have failed. 印度总理强调,有必要采取措施帮助农民。他呼吁印度各邦尽快实施农村就业计划,为贫穷农户每年提供100个工作日。他说,这对那些作物歉收的农民来讲,就像是有了保障。"We have to redouble our efforts to mitigate rural distress rising from the after effects of drought," he said.他说:“我们必须加倍努力解决农村地区因干旱所带来的灾难。”Monsoon rains usually come from June to September, and are critical because more than half the country's farmland is not irrigated. This year a long dry spell lasted until August, but rain began to fall this month raising hopes that farmers will be able to plant winter crops such as wheat. India is among the world's leading producers of crops such as wheat, rice and sugar.印度的雨季通常是在6月到9月之间,由于印度一半以上的农地都没有灌溉设施,降雨对农民来说格外重要。今年干旱的情况一直持续到8月,9月份才开始降雨,点燃了农民能够种植小麦等冬季作物的希望。印度在小麦、稻米和蔗糖等方面是世界主要生产国之一。09/83798Christmas is a festive time, especially for children. Families gather to celebrate the holidays with delicious meals and wrapped gifts. But for children whose families have no home of their own, Christmas can be a sad time.圣诞节是个欢快的时光,对孩子们来说尤其如此。家人团聚在一起,互赠礼物、分享美食。但是,对无家可归的孩子来说,圣诞节可能是一个悲伤的日子。To put a smile on homeless children's faces at this time of year, one man in New Orleans, Louisiana, organizes a Christmas party for what he calls the "Forgotten Angels."为了让这些孩子在节日里能露出笑容,一个新奥尔良的男子为那些他称之为“被遗忘的天使”们组织了一个圣诞派对。Getting startedWhen Clarence Adams applied to be a counselor at a New Orleans homeless shelter 16 years ago, he knew very little about homelessness.16年前,当克莱伦斯·亚当斯在新奥尔良无家可归者庇护中心申请一个顾问职位时,他对无家可归几乎没有任何概念。"After the interview, they gave me a tour in the building and it was lunch time," Adams says. "And I saw children there. That really bothered me. I just never thought about a child being homeless."他说:“面试后,他们领我在庇护中心里参观了一圈,那时正好是午饭时间。我看到那些孩子,觉得非常难过。我从来没想过,一个孩子也会无家可归。”Adams got the job and took it upon himself to help the kids coming to the shelter in any way he could. He went with their parents to register them for school and organized donation drives for school supplies. One day as the holidays neared, he talked to a friend about what it might be like for homeless children to celebrate Christmas. 亚当斯得到了那份工作,他开始把帮助无家可归的孩子们当作自己的责任。他和孩子家长一起去学校注册,组织为孩子们捐献学习用品的慈善活动。一年的圣诞节前,他和一个朋友谈论无家可归的孩子们是如何过圣诞节的。"Basically the only thing that these kids had to look forward to was having their Christmas dinner in the shelter with hundreds of people who they didn't know," he says. "I mentioned to my friend that if I ever got rich, I would just have a big party for homeless children. She said, 'Well, let's do it.'"亚当斯说:“基本上,这些孩子只能在庇护所里和数百个他们不认识的人一起吃顿圣诞晚餐。我说,如果我有钱了,我就为无家可归的孩子们举办一个盛大的派对。我的朋友说,好啊,就这么干。”201012/121718They call it the super car club. Porches, Ferraris, Lamborghinis driven by China's super wealthy. "Well, let's just say, my father is very rich. That's all I can tell you." The son of an iron steeling magnate and a self-made media tycoon are among the princes and princesses of Chinese industrial kings."Most girls drive automatic" this woman says, "but I think manual is more interesting"So cars are their toys and this is where Chinese millionaires come out to play on this race track. They can go up to 160 kilometers per hour.The part of a growing class of young elites writing the miracle of Chinese economic growth. China now has more known billionaires than any country besides the ed States. The average age is dropping and their tastes becoming more refined. China is now the second largest market for luxury goods in the world. This one of a kind of Ferrari sold for 1.8-million dollars at auction in Beijing. It was painted in Song dynasty style--porcelain to woo a Chinese buyer."This is a young market. Average age of Ferrari customer world wide is 45,50 years old. In China, it's 34 years old."Other luxury car brands are arriving up in China too, thanks in part to government stimulus. Sales of BMW, Audis and Mercedes are all way up. Including China's hefty luxury and import taxes, these cars cost up to 3 times what they would in other countries.What they're doing is that they're displaying their wealth, they are displaying their social level within society, but also they want to just have fun and they believe they've earned it.All right, now, it's our turn. Needless to say this is my first time in a Lamborghini, let alone an orange Lamborghini. Here we go.“When people see us in these cars. They think we are cool." says this man, "When I am driving, I feel cool."Showing off? Maybe. Shifting in the high gear? Definitely. For better or for worse, this is life in Chinese fast lane. 11/88898

Obama expectations Determined to tackle the recession, Barack Obama may delay some campaign pledges. CNN's Jim Acosta reports."This recession could linger for years."Now the change is in him. Just days from inauguration, Barack Obama is striking a different tone, this orient campaign rhetoric, "America, this is our moment. This is our time." has given way to grim reality. With the country mired in an ugly recession, the president-elect is calling for national sacrifice, warning there could actually be more job losses this year than last. The economy is also forcing Mr. Obama's team to reconsider some campaign pledges."I don't believe in running up debt for the next generation."Such as reining in deficit spending and scrapping the Bush tax cuts on the wealthiest Americans before they expire in late 2010."We have tried the George Bush's way, and it hasn’t worked."Some of the new verein is aimed at attracting Republican support with the incoming president's economic recovery plan. But that could set up an early battle in the now heavily Democratic Congress."I want a repeal of the tax cuts for the highest income people in America.""There would be a tax increase for those richer Ameri..."" This isn’t a tax increased, this focus of the tax cuts should be on America's middle class, the backbone of our democracy. We've gotten really the moil shaft in the past eight years."Mr. Obama is asking for sacrifice from Congress as well. Some political observers say the economic crisis raises the stakes."This strengthens of Barack Obama's hand with the Congress and with the public. It's so urgent. That is going to be very, very hard I think for people who don't like partial of this package devote against it.”Mr. Obama is now in the business of managing expectations, warning Americans the country not only needs hope, but hard work. He calls the task ahead, a heavy lift.Jim Acosta, CNN, Washington.01/61540

Volunteers equipped with nothing more than digital cameras are taking part in an unusual bee hunt.It's part of an environmental study that has amateur photographers documenting the impact of climate change, pollution and other factors on the interplay between plants and the creatures that pollinate them.Freeze frameBees pollinate billion worth of fruits, nuts and a variety of row crops each year in the ed States.Yet recent declines in the population of these essential insects threaten the lucrative agricultural industry.Sam Droege, a researcher at the US Geological Survey's Native Bee Inventory and Monitoring Lab, is examining possible causes for the bee decline. Working with an online environmental encyclopedia called, "Discover Life," Droege has helped organize the Bee Hunt study.Bee hunters across the ed States take pictures of pollinators and the plants they pollinate, and then upload them to the "Discover Life" website. The online database keeps track of trends in pollinator populations that show the effects of climate change, pollution or invasive species. Tracking pollinator populationsDroege's lab is filled with boxes of dead bees at various stages of identification, but the part of his job he seems to really enjoy is being outside hunting for live bees.After a short, bumpy car ride, Droege stops at a small grassy field filled with milkweed, Canada thistle and bees. He feels there is an urgent need for a large sampling of pollinator populations across the ed States."There's no bureau census of bees," he says. "So we are trying to create that in any way possible. There's not a lot of funding, so having citizens collect that kind of information would be advantageous."Information on the status of pollinators helps researchers understand exactly how factors, such as disease or pollution, impact the numbers of these important insects.Bee huntersAmateur naturalists begin their bee hunts by noting the time of day and location they are photographing.Once they find some bees, or other pollinating insects such as wasps, butterflies and beetles, it's time to pull out the camera and get some good close-ups. The volunteers upload the photos to the "Discover Life" website, where free online tools and experts are available to help identify the insects and the plants they're pollinating.So far, 50 bee hunters across the U.S. have contributed to the database. Stephanie Urquhart took pictures of pollinators in the state of Oklahoma. She became interested in the study when she first heard that bees were disappearing due to an occurrence called colony collapse disorder."My family, my father and my grandfather, they were beekeepers. And so when I heard that news, I knew what that meant. And it really scared me." Urquhart began researching colony collapse disorder and learned that, as far back as 1996, about 40 percent of the nation's wild pollinators had disappeared. "That includes bees, bats, butterflies, moths, the whole gamut."In addition to her desire to help scientists understand what is causing this pollinator decline, Urquhart also uses Bee Hunt as part of her home-schooling routine with her two young daughters. For all three of them, she says, this is a way to have a positive impact on the world."With digital photography, and the internet, now people can get directly involved with this - with climate, with wildlife issues, conservation, whatever. And really contribute something meaningful, and learn about themselves and start to understand where they live and how they can interact with their environment."Hope for the futureFostering that community involvement in research is exactly why University of Georgia researcher John Pickering founded "Discover Life," and created Bee Hunt. With the study gaining momentum now that it has full funding, Pickering is excited to see what the data will tell us, and how we can use it."I don't look at doom and destruction in our future," he says. "I really feel that if we work together, network together, collect the data that we need as a society, we can really understand and better manage this planet."Droege says combining data from multiple Bee Hunts can create an impressive database showing the status of pollinators today. It would also provide a valuable environmental baseline for understanding changes in the years to come."It's the foundation for all information to come. It'll be compared to, used over and over. We know that there were these kinds of bees and these kinds of critters on flowers at this time and this place. Twenty years later, 100 years later, you can go back and look at that again and you have the original data right there. You can look at it." 一些只带着数码相机的义工正在参与一项不寻常的环境研究。 这个“寻觅蜜蜂计划”要求业余摄影家们记录下气候变化、污染和其它因素对植物和传播花粉的蜜蜂之间相互作用所造成的影响。 在美国,蜜蜂每年为价值100亿美元的果实、坚果和其它作物传授花粉。 可是,最近蜜蜂数量的减少,威胁到这些收益良好的农副产品的生产。 为了找出导致蜜蜂数量下降的可能原因,德罗基利用网上环境百科全书“发现生命”,组织起一个叫作“寻找蜜蜂”的研究项目。美国各地的寻蜂者拍摄传授花粉的昆虫和接受花粉传授的植物照片,并且将这些照片上载到“发现生命”网站。网路资料追踪因为气候变化、污染或外来物种入侵造成的传授花粉昆虫数量的变化趋势。山姆·德罗基的实验室里摆满了盒子,里面装着不同时期死亡的蜜蜂。这是他为美国地质调查局的“本土蜜蜂清查监测实验室”所做的工作。在这个工作当中,他最喜欢的是到野外寻找活着的蜜蜂。德罗基在崎岖道路上开了一小段路,然后停在一小片长满了紫云英和加拿大蓟荆、蜜蜂飞舞的草地上。他说,现在急需大范围采集全国各地传授花粉昆虫的样品: 业余自然生物学家开始寻蜂作业时,要记下来他们拍摄照片的日期、时间和地点。 一旦他们找到了蜜蜂或者其它传授花粉的昆虫,例如黄蜂、蝴蝶、甲虫等,就马上拿出相机,拍摄近距离特写。最后,义工们将照片上载到“发现生命”网站,由专家们确认昆虫的种类和接受花粉传播的植物。 目前,全美国有50名寻蜂者为这个资料库提供资讯。奥克拉荷马州的斯特凡尼·厄克特是听说蜜蜂消失的消息后,开始对这项研究发生兴趣的。 她说:“我父亲和祖父都是从事养蜂的。所以,我听到这个消息时,我知道那意味着什么,我非常担心。所以我开始研究蜂群的反常消失和潜在的原因。我发现,早在1996年,我们就失去了百分之40的野生授粉昆虫,包括蜜蜂、蝙蝠、蝴蝶、飞蛾等等。” 除了希望协助科学家了解授粉昆虫数量减少的原因,厄克特还把寻找蜜蜂作为她的两个小女儿家庭教育的内容。她说,这是她们母女三人能够为这世界做出积极贡献的途径:  “由于数码摄影和网路,人们现在可以直接参与气象、野生生物、环境保育等许多问题,并且做出有意义的贡献,学习并了解自己居住的地方,以及如何与环境互动。” 促进社区参与研究工作,这正是乔治敦大学学者约翰·皮克林创立“发现生命”网站和开始“寻找蜜蜂”项目的初衷。随着研究工作渐入佳境和有了充裕的经费,皮克林现在非常希望知道这些数据将揭示什么,和我们如何去利用这些数据。 皮克林说:“我不认为前途一片黑暗。我确实觉得,如果我们一起努力,一起建立我们的网络,收集我们作为一个社会所需要的资讯,我们就能够懂得地球,懂得如何把地球治理得更好。”201007/110053

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