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盐城子宫肌瘤七公分该怎么办阜宁县中医院治疗膀胱炎多少钱盐城人流多少钱 Science and Technology Combating addiction科技 打击吸毒Can a vaccine stop drug abuse?是否有种疫苗能对付毒品滥用?It may be possible to vaccinate people against addictive drugs向吸毒者接种疫苗防止毒瘾将成为可能THE idea of vaccinating drug addicts against their affliction is an intriguing one.如何消除吸毒者的毒瘾折磨,是个有挑战性的命题。In principle, it should not be too hard.从理论上来讲,这并不难。The immune system works, in part, by making antibodies that are specific to particular sorts of hostile molecule.只要让免疫系统,产生某种针对这种恶性分子的抗体便可。Such antibodies recognise and attach themselves to these molecules, rendering them harmless.这种抗体能识别并紧紧附在毒品分子上,尽可能消灭它们。Vaccines work by presenting the immune system with novel targets, so that it can learn to react to them if it comes across them again.疫苗让免疫系统有了明确的对付目标,系统便能在下次遇到该种病毒时有所反应,将其及时消灭The problem is that the molecules antibodies recognise and react to are the big ones, such as proteins, that are characteristic of bacteria, viruses and other infectious agents.问题是,抗体能够识别出较大的分子,比如以蛋白质形式表现出来的,像细菌,病毒,或者别的感染物质。Small molecules, such as drugs, go unnoticed.较小的分子,比如毒品,却不能识别出来。But not for much longer, if Kim Janda of the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego has his way.不久后这一情况会有所改变,圣地亚哥克里斯普研究所的Kim Janda谈到。In a paper just published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, Dr Janda and his colleagues suggest how a vaccine against methamphetamine, a popular street drug, might be made.近期出版的美国化学学会杂志中,一篇文章提到,Janda士及他的同事们发现,一种对抗常见毒品甲基苯丙胺的疫苗有望实现。If their method works, it would open the possibility of vaccinating people against other drugs, too.以此类推,对抗其他毒品的疫苗也将可能到来。The idea of a methamphetamine vaccine is not new.研制对抗甲基苯丙胺的疫苗设想已不是新话题了。The problem is getting the immune system to pay attention to a molecule that is such a small target.关键在于免疫系统能“发现”这样小的目标。The way that has been tried in the past is to build the vaccine from several components.过去的日子里很多方法都已试验,并从不同角度研发疫苗。First, there is a large carrier protein that forms a platform for the target.首先,需要一个蛋白质载体作为平台,让免疫系统能发现毒品分子。Then there is the target itself, a set of smaller molecules called haptens that are attached to the carrier. These may either be the drug in question or some analogue of it that, for one reason or another, is to have a better chance of training the immune system.有了目标后,将会有一系列被称作半抗原的分子将会聚集在这些病毒载体上,这些病毒或者类似的分子,无论怎样,有助于提高免疫系统的识别能力。Finally, there is a chemical cocktail called an adjuvant that helps get the immune system to pay attention to the carrier protein and the haptens.最后,一种叫佐剂的化学物质,推动免疫系统识别蛋白质载体和半抗原Dr Janda noticed that past experiments on methamphetamine vaccines had all revolved around tweaking either the carrier protein or the adjuvant, rather than tinkering with the haptens.Janda士根据过去针对甲基苯丙胺疫苗的实验发现,该疫苗更多时候是反复出现于蛋白质载体或者佐剂附近,却并非是半抗原的补充作用。He thought he might be able to change that, on the basis of work he had carried out previously, trying to design a vaccine against nicotine. In particular, nicotine is a highly flexible molecule.他认为他可以设法改变这一现状。就目前的研发成果的基础上,他正在研发某种对抗尼古丁的疫苗。That makes it hard for the immune system to recognise.尤其是,尼古丁是一种较灵活的分子,使免疫系统更加难以识别。To overcome this, his team on the nicotine project had to work out how to fix their haptens to the carrier protein in a way that rendered them less capable of twisting and turning, and thus made them easier for the immune system to identify.为克这一困难, Janda士的团队已经研究出如何令半抗原附在蛋白质载体上,并让其活动稳定一些。如此,免疫系统便能更好的识别出病毒。In the new study, Dr Janda and his colleagues report that they have performed a similar trick with methamphetamine haptens.Janda士和他的同事们最新研究表示,他们已成功应对甲基苯丙胺半抗原,They used computer models to visualise the haptens in three dimensions and thus work out how the molecules could be rearranged such that they could not spring, twist or turn when being examined by the immune system.他们利用电脑模拟视图显示三种形式的半抗原,并明免疫系统检查人体时,分子可被重新排列并不在复发。In light of this information they designed six new methamphetamine-like haptens.据此,他们设计了六种全新的似甲基苯丙胺半抗原。Once built, they attached the new hapten molecules to carrier proteins, mixed them with adjuvant, injected the results into mice and waited.之后,他们把这些新的半抗原分子和着佐剂附在蛋白质载体上,并试验于白鼠。After several weeks they tested the mice to see if the animals blood contained antibodies to methamphetamine.几周后,他们测试了这些白鼠,看它们血液内是否含有对抗甲基苯丙胺的抗体。Of the six new haptens, three successfully provoked the mice to make such antibodies.在这六种半抗原中,有三种成功:小白鼠体内有了抗体。As a bonus, one of those three also stimulated the production of antibodies against another widely used drug, amphetamine.在三只中白鼠的一只,其抗体将会被广泛运用,生产对抗另一种药物安非他明的抗体。That is still a long way from providing a working vaccine, but it is an important step forward.尽管前路漫漫,但此举终是重要一步。And if human immune systems react in the same way to the new vaccines as murine ones do, the day when a drug addict might be offered vaccination rather than opprobrium will have come a little closer.若是人体免疫系统能像小老鼠那样接受疫苗的话,用疫苗解决毒瘾将指日可待。 /201212/213874盐城哪人流做的最好

盐城哪个医院看妇科最好Hong Kong customs displays its latest haul of smuggled ivory. Officials found almost 800 elephant tusks, chopped up and hidden in crates beneath slabs and stones, destination unclear. Poachers shot the elephants and then hacked out their tusks with machetes. Elephants need the tusks to breath, fight and feed.香港海关展示了最近捕获的走私象牙。海关工作人员发现了近800只被割断的象牙,藏匿于上面覆盖着石板和石块的板条箱中。运送目的地不明,偷猎者用射死了大象,然后用弯刀开凿出大象的长牙。大象需要象牙来呼吸、战斗和进食。These ivory tusks, after they are crafted, they are high-valued goods.The smugglers, they will send these high valued goods to the places that they can make a profit.这些象牙,在经过雕刻之后,是价值很高的商品。这些走私者将这些昂贵的商品送往需求地,便能赚得大钱。Hong Kong customs believes that the 1.4 million-dollar shipment comes from Kenya and will smuggle to Malaysia. Besides Hong Kong, major illicit ivory seizures have been made in mainland China, the Philippines and Vietnam and Thailand. As people become wealthier in Asia, they are driving up the demand for ivory products, with china shipping was as one of biggest markets.香港海关确信这艘运送的货物价值达140万美元的船只来自于肯尼亚,企图走私至马来西亚。除了香港,中国大陆、菲利宾、越南和台湾也查扣多起重大非法走私的象牙。随着亚洲的人们越变越富,他们拉动了象牙产品在市场上的需求,中国海运业是其带动的最大的市场之一。There is no intelligence, and no information, suggesting that there is an increasing trend of smuggling cases of smuggling ivory tusks detected.在事先没有得到情报、消息的情况下查扣了多起象牙走私案件,表明走私案件有日益增加的趋势。But Friday’s one ton shipment is the Hong Kong’s third major seizure of illegal ivory in three months. Customs seize nearly four tons of ivory worth 3.5 million last October. That toll was smuggled from Kenya and Tanzania, two of the many countries where elephants live in Africa see here in red. Elephant populations in many of those areas is at risk of shrinking. Biologists say at this rate of proaching, and the illicit ivory trade could wipe out Africa’s elephants in less than 20 years.周五的上吨级的这批货物是最近三个月内第三大截获非法走私象牙案。去年10月,海关共查收近四吨价值近350万带的象牙。这些象牙来自于肯尼亚和坦桑尼亚,这是非洲几个生长有红色大象的两个国家。这些地区的大象数量正在缩减。生物学家们认为,以这种偷猎的速度,非法象牙交易可能会在不到20年内使全部的大象灭绝。201301/223712盐城不孕与不育医院 The prefrontal cortex is the region of the brain located just behind the forehead, where higher-level cognition occurs, such as recalling whether a word was heard aloud or . Most people show evidence of more processing on one side of the cortex, the right side. However, research has shown that many elderly people use both hemispheres more equally, thus processing bilaterally.前额皮质位于前额之后区域,作用于高级认知,比如,回忆是否听过或读过某个单词。大多数人右侧大脑皮层更发达。而研究显示,一些老年人均衡使用左右脑,因此左右脑相当。This discovery led to two opposing theories as to why. One theory supposes that this change in the prefrontal cortex is part of the general decline of the body, that bilateral processing is evidence of malfunctioning. The other theory supposes that enlisting the help of the other hemisphere of the prefrontal cortex is a way to compensate for reduced capacity in the more active hemisphere; that is, the brain is making up for its own failings.产生了两种截然不同理论来解释这一发现。一种理论是这种改变是因为整体机能衰退,大脑协调分工失常。另一种观点则认为左脑协助右脑工作,是在弥补更活跃的右脑机能的衰退,也就是说,这种情况是在弥补大脑自身机能的衰退。Scientists conducted a range of cognitive tests with older adults in their 60’s and 70’s. Then chose two smaller groups from those subjects–those who performed high on the tests, and those who performed low. The scientists then administered two of the same tests to the two groups of older adults, as well as to a group of young adults between the ages of 20 and 35 while the subjects’ brains were PET scanned. What they found was that the high-performing older adults showed significantly more use of bilateral processing than did anyone else.科学家针对60岁到70岁的老人做过一组认知测试。从中删选出两小组:一组测试表现好的;一组测试表现差的。科学家对这两组老人和一组年龄在20岁到35岁的受试者进行相同测试,并扫描受试者大脑。结果发现,比起其他两组,测试表现好的老人均衡使用左右脑。The research supports the theory that bilateral processing is a way to compensate for reduced capacity of the right hemisphere with age. Further research may examine how training individuals or using drugs to enhance bilateral processing affects diseases such as Alzheimer’s.研究结果表明后者观点是正确的,左右脑合作是为了弥补因为年老衰退的右侧大脑机能。研究的下一步是明个体能否通过训练或用药物提高左右脑功能均衡发展,预防老年痴呆症。 /201303/231059江苏盐城男科妇科网上预约

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