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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年01月24日 05:57:06
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For most Americans, Friday#39;s 50th anniversary of President John F. Kennedy#39;s assassination is a time to look back on one of the most turbulent days in the nation#39;s history.周五是美国总统肯尼迪遇刺50周年纪念日,对于多数美国人来说,这一天纪念着一段最为动荡的美国历史。But for people who were entangled in the events of Nov. 22, 1963, like the co-worker who drove Lee Harvey Oswald to work that morning, or the family of the man behind the power Zapruder film that captured the shooting, it has defined their lives.有一些人深陷事件之中,对于他们而言,1963年11月22日意味着人生的彻底转变。在他们当中,有在那天开车送李?哈维?奥斯瓦德(Lee Harvey Oswald)上班的同事,还有全面展现案件过程的泽普鲁德影片背后的拍摄者。That day also has remained a constant for people who became obsessed with the enduring mystery of what led to Kennedy#39;s murder, including a former conspiracy theorist who is now curator of the mainstream museum commemorating the shooting, much to the chagrin of his old colleagues.而对另一些人而言,肯尼迪遇害悬案背后的未解之谜令他们久久不能释怀。比如一位曾经的阴谋论者,如今他担任一家纪念这起事件的主流物馆的馆长,这令他以前的同事都十分气愤。Here are their stories:下面,就让我们走进他们的故事:Buell Wesley Frazier : After Driving Oswald, #39;I Was So Scared#39;比尔?韦斯利?弗雷泽(Buell Wesley Frazier):那件事之后,我害怕极了Fifty years ago, a teenaged Buell Wesley Frazier gave a colleague a ride to work, a courtesy that changed his life forever.50年前,十几岁的弗雷泽开车搭着一位同事一起去上班,然而他的好心彻底改变了他的生活。His co-worker at the Texas School Book Depository was Lee Harvey Oswald. The Warren Commission later concluded that the package Mr. Oswald placed on the backseat of Mr. Frazier#39;s Chevrolet Bel Air that morning didn#39;t contain curtain rods, as he had claimed, but the rifle he used to kill President John F. Kennedy.弗雷泽在德克萨斯州教科书仓库(Texas School Book Depository)工作,他的同事便是奥斯瓦德。根据华伦委员会(Warren Commission)的判定,奥斯瓦德那天早上将用来射杀肯尼迪的步放入一个包中,向弗雷泽谎称包里是窗 杆,并把包放在了弗雷泽的雪佛兰(Chevrolet) Bel Air轿车的后座上。#39;It#39;s still hard to believe that something like this happened and I got swept up in it,#39; said Mr. Frazier, now 69 years old. #39;I just wish it had never happened to me.#39;现年69岁的弗雷泽说道,我至今仍难以相信自己会被卷入到这样一个事件里,我真希望它从未发生在我身上。Many Americans alive when Mr. Kennedy was shot have said they lost some of their innocence that day. But for Mr. Frazier, the loss was deeply personal.许多经历了此事的美国人都将其视作一份纯真情怀的逝去,而弗雷泽承受的是更加深切的伤痛。He remembers watching from a window as the presidential motorcade passed the book warehouse, thinking that Jacqueline Kennedy #39;looked as good as the pictures in Life magazine.#39;他记得当总统车队经过书库的时候,他透过窗户看到杰奎琳?肯尼迪(Jacqueline Kennedy),心想她可真是和《生活》(Life)杂志里看起来一样漂亮。He remembers seeing Mr. Oswald, an acquaintance whom he knew only as Lee, walking away from the building in the chaos that followed the shooting and fading into the crowd.他记得看到奥斯瓦德从楼里走向喧闹的车队向总统开然后消失在人群里。他和奥斯瓦德并不熟,只知道他名字叫李。He remembers being pushed up against a wall later that evening by Dallas police, who interrogated him for hours about Mr. Oswald, then asked him to sign a typed statement confessing to being an accomplice to the assassination. He refused and was released.他记得那天晚上,达拉斯警员逮捕了他,用好几个小时审讯他有关奥斯瓦德的事情,然后让他在一份打好的声明上签字,承认自己是刺杀肯尼迪总统的同谋。他拒绝签字并被释放。He remembers the fear he felt when he watched Mr. Oswald be shot to death on live television by Dallas nightclub operator Jack Ruby that Sunday, how he wondered whether he was somehow in danger.随后,奥斯瓦德在被移交监狱的过程中被达拉斯夜店经营者杰克?鲁比(Jack Ruby)杀,这一过程经电视全程直播。弗雷泽记得当他看到这一事件时,心里是多么害怕自己也会出事。#39;This was all bigger than I could imagine. And I was so scared,#39; he said.他说:这件事的严重性远超我的想像。我当时真的害怕极了。Mr. Frazier went on with life, but says he was a changed man. He blames the shooting for his subsequent career frustrations, but concedes he hasn#39;t always been easy to like. #39;I have a hard time trusting people,#39; he said. He works part-time as a driver for an auto-body shop in the Dallas area, and like many Americans, continues to have questions about Nov. 22, 1963.弗雷泽的生活还是要继续,但他觉得自己已不再是曾经的自己。他认为杀案导致了他日后事业的不如意,不过他承认自己也不总是那么招人喜欢。他说,有段时间,我很难再相信他人。如今他是达拉斯一家汽车修理店的兼职司机,并和许多美国人一样,一直对肯尼迪刺杀案充满疑虑。Mr. Oswald lived in a Dallas boarding house during the week and asked Mr. Frazier for rides on weekends to visit his wife, Marina, who lived near Mr. Frazier in Irving, Texas. This time, however, Mr. Oswald had asked for a lift to Irving on a Thursday, and showed up to get a ride back to work Friday morning carrying what he said were curtain rods-a claim Mr. Frazier has trouble believing wasn#39;t true.奥斯瓦德工作日寄宿在达拉斯的一家旅馆里,妻子玛丽娜(Marina)住在德克萨斯州的欧文市,离弗雷泽很近。一到周末他就会请弗雷泽开车载他去见妻子。然而那个周四,奥斯瓦德搭他的车去了欧文市,并在周五的早上又与他一起回去上班。他告诉弗雷泽手上的包里装的是窗 杆,这让弗雷泽很难起什么疑心。Ruth Paine, the woman with whom Mr. Oswald#39;s wife lived at the time, long ago concluded that the official account of the assassination made sense: Mr. Oswald was capable of murder, she said, and all evidence pointed to him acting alone.露丝?佩因(Ruth Paine)当时与奥斯瓦德的妻子住在一起,她很早就认同了官方对谋杀案的解释,她说:奥斯瓦德绝对干得出杀人的事来,而且所有据都说明他没有共犯。Ms. Paine, now 81 and living in California, believes Mr. Frazier may not be able to emotionally digest what the Warren Commission concluded Mr. Oswald had transported in Mr. Frazier#39;s car that day.现年81岁的佩因居住在加利福尼亚,对于华伦委员会对那天早上包中放有的判定,她相信弗雷泽心里肯定很难接受得了。#39;I am really sorry Buell is in that form of denial,#39; said Ms. Paine, a retired school psychologist, whose old home was restored by Irving and reopened as a museum this month. #39;I have tried to run away from talking about this all my life, but I have also tried to accept the facts.#39;佩因退休前是一位学校心理咨询师,她说,我为弗雷泽的遭遇感到深深的遗憾。这个月,她在欧文的老家已被重新翻修成一座物馆。她说,我一直试着不去谈论我人生中的这段遭遇,但我也努力着去接受现实。Mr. Frazier remains adamant that Mr. Oswald couldn#39;t have killed the president by himself. It is a view shared by many Americans, who feel that multiple people must have plotted the assassination, according to opinion polls, including one by the Associated Press this month that found 59% believed in a conspiracy.弗雷泽却坚信奥斯瓦德不可能凭一己之力杀害总统。根据美联社(Associated Press)本月的调查,有59%的美国人也都持此观点,认为肯定是多人共同策划了这起谋杀。#39;I#39;d like for the American people someday to know the truth,#39; Mr. Frazier said. He acknowledges that he isn#39;t quite sure what that is.弗雷泽说,我期待着真相大白于天下的那一天。他说,他并不清楚真相到底是什么。 /201311/266025

  A daily cup of coffee can save your eyesight, scientists claim.科学家称,每日一杯咖啡可以拯救你的视力。A chemical found in the drink prevents deteriorating eyesight and possible blindness from retinal degeneration due to glaucoma, ageing and diabetes.研究发现,咖啡中的一种化学成分可防止视力下降,甚至可预防青光眼、角膜老化及糖尿病所引起的视网膜退化,从而防止失明。Researchers at Cornell Univesity in New York were looking at coffee#39;s antioxidant effects when they made the discovery.Coffee contains 1 percent caffeine but between 7 and 9 percent chlorogenic acid which is a strong antioxidant.The study, published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, found that in mice this acid prevented retinal degeneration.这项研究是纽约康奈尔大学的研究者们在研究咖啡的抗氧化作用时意外发现的。咖啡中包含1%的咖啡因,但是有7%至9%的强抗氧化剂绿原酸。这项发表在《农业与食品化学期刊》的研究发现,小白鼠体内的绿原酸可以防止视网膜退化。Chang Y. Lee, a professor of food science and the study#39;s senior author said: ‘The retina is a thin tissue layer on the inside, back wall of the eye with millions of light-sensitive cells and other nerve cells that receive and organise visual information.‘It is also one of the most metabolically active tissues, demanding high levels of oxygen and making it prone to oxidative stress.‘The lack of oxygen and production of free radicals leads to tissue damage and loss of sight.’食品科学教授、该研究作者之一李昌说道:“视网膜是眼中一层薄薄的膜状组织,是眼睛数以万计的感光细胞和其他神经细胞的接收和组织视觉信息的后壁。它也是新陈代谢最活跃的组织之一,因此需要很高的含氧量去应对氧化压力。缺少含氧量和自由基的产生能导致视网膜组织损坏和失明。”He added: ‘The study is important in understanding functional foods, that is, natural foods that provide beneficial health effects.他还说道:“这项研究对于了解食物的功能十分重要。也就是说天然食品对我们的健康有益。”‘Coffee is the most popular drink in the world, and we are understanding what benefit we can get from that.’“咖啡是世界上最受欢迎的饮品。我们现在知道了我们可以从中收获什么样的好处。”Previous studies have shown that coffee also cuts the risk of such chronic diseases as Parkinson#39;s, prostate cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer#39;s and age-related cognitive declines.在此之前,曾有研究表明咖啡还可以降低帕金森氏症、前列腺癌、糖尿病、老年痴呆症以及其他由于年老引起的认知衰退等慢性疾病的风险。 /201405/297343

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  This eye-catching bridge design is bound to have the architectural critics tongue-tied.这座桥的设计造型如此抢眼,一定会让建筑家们嗔目结舌。Designed by Amsterdam-based NEXT architects, it won an international competition to design a pedestrian bridge across Meixi Lake in Changsha, China.该桥由总部位于阿姆斯特丹的Next建筑事务所设计师设计,一举在中国长沙梅溪湖人行天桥设计大赛中获得国际设计大奖。NEXT says the bridge, which is modelled after the M#246;bius strip and Chinese knots, will have a total span of more than 150 metres and will be 24 metres high. It will feature #39;a diversity of routings#39; on different heights, providing several routes for walkers to take as they cross the river.NEXT建筑事务所称,这座桥是以莫比乌斯带和中国结造型为设计原型,大桥长150米、高24米。设计造型新颖独特,桥身连绵起伏,行人可在不同高度选取路线过桥。The undulating construction is to be one of the key projects within the Dragon King Harbour River development project, part of a vast programme of development in the new lake district.这座波浪形的桥梁是湖南长沙龙王港建设工程的一大重点建设项目,是龙王港新湖区建设中的一项大型工程。The bridge is the key project for the development of the public space of the river park#39;s recreational, ecological and tourist program. Construction is scheduled for next year.在当地政府打造集休闲、生态与旅游为一身的河滨公园的大型工程中,这座拟建桥梁是利用公共空间的关键项目,建设工作将于明年启动。#39;The construction with the intersecting connections is based on the principal of the M#246;bius ring,#39; says NEXT#39;s Michel. #39;On the other hand it refers to a Chinese knot that comes from an ancient decorative Chinese folk art.#39;“我们在这座桥梁的设计方案中设置了若干以莫比乌斯带为原理的交叉连接点。” NEXT建筑事务所的麦克如是说。“同时,它也象征着中国结这种中国的古代民间工艺。”#39;It provides both a view on the Dragon King Harbor River as well as Meixi Lake, Changsha and it surrounding mountains.#39;“桥面视域广阔,龙王港河、梅溪湖、长沙和周围的群山都能净收眼底。” /201406/304602

  

  Dear Annie: This is kind of a weird question, but how do you tell an office friend that she#39;s damaging her professional image by going on and on about her personal life? I work with someone who is bright, talented, and capable, but other people here -- including our boss -- are starting to roll their eyes (and leave the room, if possible) every time she opens her mouth, because she shares so much about her home life, her kids, what she did over the weekend, etc. Last week she came back from vacation and she hasn#39;t topped talking about her family#39;s road trip, complete with about 900 pictures.亲爱的安妮:我问的问题有点奇怪。我在办公室有个朋友总是没完没了地聊自己的私生活,她这样做是在毁坏自己的专业形象,我怎么提醒她才好呢?我这个同事聪明能干,也有才能,但是每次她一开口,办公室里的人都会翻白眼(如有可能,还会当场离开),连老板也不例外。因为她话太多了,总是喋喋不休地讲家里的生活、孩子的情况、周末做了什么等等。上周,她休假回来以后,嘴巴就没停过,叽里呱啦地跟我们讲她一家人的公路旅行,还带了900多张照片。We work for a manager who says very little about his life outside the office (although he does have the usual framed family photos on his desk and kids#39; crayon drawings on his walls, but that#39;s about it), so my other colleagues and I follow his lead, the sole exception being this one teammate. I#39;d like to tell her this oversharing is a habit that could wreck her career here (if it hasn#39;t aly), but I don#39;t want to hurt her feelings, since I do have to work beside her every day. What do you suggest? --TMI in Texas我们的上司是个经理,他很少谈自己的私生活(诚然,他的确在桌上摆了普通尺寸的全家福,也在墙上贴了孩子的蜡笔画,但他对私生活的分享也仅限于此),所以我和其他同事都以他为表率,只有这个同事例外。我想提醒她,过度分享的习惯可能会葬送她在这里的事业(如果说她的事业还没有被葬送的话),但是我不想伤害她的感情,毕竟我还得天天和她在一起工作。你有什么建议吗?——得州话唠Dear T.M.I.T.:This is a sticky one, because talking a bit about one#39;s personal life now and then ;can be really helpful in building solidarity on a team. It helps people discover things they have in common,; notes Michael Crom, an executive vice president at Dale Carnegie Training, who adds that his firm#39;s consultants often run across people like your coworker. ;But too much talk about extracurriculars is hazardous. It makes you seem unprofessional, or just not focused on the work. There are only so many baby pictures your colleagues want to see.;亲爱的得州话唠:这是个棘手的问题,因为企管训练品牌卡内基训练(Dale Carnegie Training)的执行副总裁迈克尔?克罗姆说过,偶尔谈一点私生活“确实有助于增强团队凝聚力,人们可以通过这种方式找到共同点。”他还说,他经常在公司里碰到像你同事这种类型的咨询师。“但是过多地谈论自己的私生活很危险。这样做可能会让你显得不专业,要么纯粹是心思不在工作上。给同事看婴儿照片这种事情,点到为止就好了。”Crom speculates that a rise in TMI at work can probably be traced back to Facebook (FB) and other social media. ;There#39;s a level of openness now that just didn#39;t exist five or 10 years ago,; he says. ;It#39;s partly generational. Young people coming into the workforce are used to putting things out there in public that used to be considered private, and they may not realize that too much of that just isn#39;t appropriate in most businesses.;克罗姆认为,职场话唠或许是因为Facebook等社交媒体的出现。“现在人们的开放程度是五到十年前不能比的,”他说。“代际差异是其中的一部分原因。初入职场的年轻人习惯了秀生活,以前的人认为是隐私的东西在他们眼里都可以公开,他们可能没有意识到,过度秀生活的行为在大多数企业都不得体。”At the same time, Crom#39;s company has done extensive research showing that employees are more engaged, and more likely to stick around, if their bosses take some interest in their personal lives and reveal a bit about their own. ;People want a closer relationship with coworkers and especially with bosses,; he says. ;We#39;ve found that a warm personal rapport is crucial to retaining top employees.;与此同时,克罗姆的公司开展了广泛的研究,结果表明,如果老板适度关心员工的私生活,同时适度分享自己的私生活,员工的干劲会更大,对公司的忠诚度也会更高。“人人都想和同事、尤其是老板建立更密切的关系,”他说。“我们发现,要想留住精英员工,关键是要和他们保持融洽的私人关系。”Barbara Pachter agrees. A communications consultant who has counseled executives at Pfizer (PFE), Merck (MRK), Microsoft (MSFT), and other big companies, she#39;s also the author (with Denise Cowie) of a new book called The Essentials of Business Etiquette: How to Greet, Eat, and Tweet Your Way to Success. ;You do have to share a little,; Pachter says. ;Being too distant can be just as offputting as sharing too much.; One manager she coached ;came in on a Monday morning with a wedding ring on. He had never mentioned to anyone that he was getting married,; Pachter recalls. ;His team was furious. They froze him out.;芭芭拉?帕切特同意这个观点。帕切特曾为辉瑞(Pfizer)、默克(Merck)、微软(Microsoft)等大企业的高管担任通信顾问,她还与丹尼斯?考伊合著了一本新书,名为《商业礼仪要点》(The Essentials of Business Etiquette: How to Greet, Eat, and Tweet Your Way to Success)。“分享一点私生活的确是必需的,”帕切特说。“过度疏远可能会和过度分享一样令人生厌。”她指导过的一名经理“在某个星期一的早晨走进办公室,手上戴着婚戒。但是他从来没有跟人提过自己结婚的事,”帕切特回忆道,“他的团队一片哗然,后来通过冷战把他排挤走了。”So how do you know how much personal chat is enough? Finding that fine line requires sensitivity to the prevailing culture where you work. It sounds as if you and your colleagues, except for Chatty Cathy, have figured this out. If nobody else is going on at length about their kids or trying to show everyone their vacation snapshots, it#39;s obviously wise to refrain.那么,怎么才能知道分享私生活的限度在哪里呢?这需要你对工作场所的主流文化保持敏感。从你说的情况看,除了那个话唠同事以外,办公室里的其他人都对这一点心知肚明。如果大家都没有长篇大论地聊自己的孩子,或者到处展示自己的度假快照,那么你不这样做显然是明智之举。Beyond that, Pachter has two rules: First, she says, ;If you have strong political beliefs, they#39;re best kept to yourself. Politics can change someone#39;s whole opinion of you, often for the worse -- and, considering it#39;s extraneous to the job you#39;re doing, is it worth it?;除此之外,帕切特还有两条法则。她说,第一条是,“如果你有坚定的政治信仰,最好别让人知道。要不然,别人对你的看法可能会完全改变,而且往往是向不好的方向转变——再说了,政治信仰与你的工作毫无关系,为这种事情影响你的前途,值得吗?”And second, she says, ;Never, ever share anything that could be used against you later. Especially, don#39;t talk about any situation where you may have acted less than ethically.; In her consulting work, Pachter is frequently amazed at some of the things people brag to coworkers about. ;There are people who actually believe it makes them look clever if they reveal that, for instance, a store clerk gave them too much change and they took it without saying anything,; she says. ;Often, people just don#39;t realize how they#39;re coming across to colleagues -- and some people just talk too much, period.;帕切特的第二条法则是,“切记,永远不要给人留下把柄。不光的事情尤其说不得。”在担任顾问期间,帕切特总是惊讶地发现,一些匪夷所思的事情也会有人拿来跟同事吹嘘。“事实上还有人觉得,这种事情说出去会显得自己很高明——比方说店员找多了的零钱,自己一声不响地收下,”她说。“人们往往根本就没有意识到,自己说出去的话会给同事造成什么样的印象——有些人纯粹就是话太多,就这么回事。”Which brings us back to your dilemma with your teammate. ;You must speak up and let her know; that her behavior is making her persona non grata around the office, Pachter says: ;If the situation were reversed and you were doing something that was making people roll their eyes and try to avoid you, wouldn#39;t you want someone to warn you?;这就回到了你所面临的两难选择——究竟应不应该提醒同事。“你必须说出来,让她知道”自己的行为在办公室成了众矢之的,帕切特表示,“换做是你在办公室里做了什么事情让同事不齿,乃至避免和你打交道,你也会希望有人能提醒你吧?”Assuming you would, ;start with that. Ask this coworker if she#39;s open to some feedback, and explain that you#39;d want to hear this if you were in her place. Then describe the effect that her constant personal talk is having on her credibility as a professional, and suggest she put away the vacation photos and talk less about her home life.;假设你希望是这样。“那么你可以先从这里着手。问一问那个同事,看她想不想听一些反馈,解释一下换做是你,也希望有人能提醒自己。然后告诉她,在办公室里没完没了地聊私生活有损她的专业形象,建议她把度假照片收起来,少谈一点家庭生活。”It might help to cushion the criticism by stressing that you do, as you note, regard her as bright and capable and you#39;d hate to see this one quirk hold her back. ;Say you#39;re concerned about her reputation,; Michael Crom advises. ;You could point out that the rest of your colleagues tend to reserve most of their personal talk for lunch hours and other break times; —-- and that your boss seems to prefer that. Good luck.你也承认自己的同事聪明能干,可以把这一点跟她说明,告诉她,你不希望这种小习惯挫伤她的积极性。这样做或许可以缓和你对她的批评语气。“告诉她,你在乎她的名声,”迈克尔?克罗姆。“还可以指出,其他同事一般都只在午饭或休息时间谈论私事。”——而且你的老板似乎也喜欢这么做。祝你好运。Talkback: Have you ever worked with someone who talked too much about her life outside work? Do you think the tendency toward TMI is sping? Leave a comment below.读者反馈:你有没有遇到过太爱聊个人私生活的同事?你觉得职场话唠是不是越来越常见?欢迎留言。 /201309/256371

  British nutritionists threw down the gauntlet to dietary guidelines in April by declaring seven daily portions of fresh fruit and vegetables, rather than the recommended five, were the key to health.英国营养学家在四月份向既定的食谱指南发起挑战,宣称保持身体健康的关键是每日七种蔬果搭配而不是以往推荐的五种蔬果。But a new foray into the arena of sound eating says the famous five-a-day recommendation made by the UN#39;s World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2003 should be fine.但是一项新的关于健康饮食的调查显示,联合国世界卫生组织((WHO))在2003年推荐的著名的每日五蔬果搭配是合理的。Researchers in China and the ed States trawled through 16 published investigations into diet and health involving more than 830, 000 participants, who were followed for periods ranging from four and a half years to 26 years.中国和美国的研究者搜索了16种已经出版的饮食和健康调查,涉及到超过83万的参与者,这些人参与并接受了从4年半到26年不等的跟踪调查。Every additional daily serving of fruit and vegetables reduced the average risk of premature death from all causes by five percent, the scientists found.科学家们发现,每日每多摄入一份蔬菜和水果,由各种因素引起的早死亡率就会降低5%。Over the period of the studies, 56, 000 of the participants died, researchers said.研究者称,有5.6万参与者在这项研究进行的过程中去世。In the case of death from a heart attack or a stroke, each additional serving curbed risk by four percent.在那些死于心脏病和中风的病例中,每天多吃一种蔬果,疾病的威胁就降低4%。But there was no evidence of an additional fall in risk beyond five portions, according to the review, published online Tuesday by the British Medical Journal (BMJ).但是根据英国医学杂志(BMJ)周二在网上发表的,仍然没有据能表明多增加一种可以比五种的搭配更能降低死亡率。;We found a threshold of around five servings a day of fruit and vegetables, after which the risk of death did not reduce further, ; said the investigators, led by Frank Hu of the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston, Massachusetts.“我们发现一天五蔬果是一个临界值,在此基础上增加再多的份量对降低死亡风险也无济于事。”位于马萨诸塞,波士顿的哈佛大学公共卫生学院的弗兰克#8226;胡(Frank Hu)所领导的研究团队称。High consumption of fruit and veg did not translate into a significant reduction in the risk of death from cancer, the study also found.研究也发现,多摄入蔬菜和水果并不代表就能显著降低患癌死亡的风险。In addition to advising patients about the virtues of healthy eating, doctors should also push home the message about risks from obesity, inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking, said the paper.这篇论文提到,除了建议病人健康饮食外,医生也应该尽量告诫他们在家庭生活中应注意肥胖,缺少锻炼,吸烟以及过度酗酒对身体带来的风险。In April, researchers at University College London found that eating seven daily portions or more could reduce the risk of cancer by 25 percent and of heart disease by 31 percent, compared to people who consumed less than one portion a day.在四月份,英国伦敦大学学院(University College London)的研究者们发现,一天摄入七种蔬果或以上份量的人同那些一天摄入量少于一种的人相比,患癌症的风险降低25%,患心脏病的风险降低31%。The study was based on the eating habits of more than 65, 000 people in England between 2001 and 2008.这项研究是依据2001年到2008年间英国6.5万多人的饮食习惯而得出的。The London researchers admitted to being surprised by what they found and cautioned the results may not be applicable to other countries.伦敦的研究者们承认他们对自己的发现感到十分惊喜,同时谨慎地提醒这项结果可能并不适用于其它国家。Britain has one of the highest rates of heart disease in Europe, a fact blamed in part on a diet high in fat and sugar.英国是欧洲心脏病发生率最高的国家,部分原因应归咎于含过多脂肪和糖分的饮食习惯。The WHO guidelines are based on the equivalent of five 80-gram (three-ounce) portions. One portion is roughly equivalent to a medium-sized apple, a bowl of mixed salad or three dessert spoonfuls of raw, cooked, canned or frozen vegetables.世界卫生组织以5份80克(3盎司)的摄入量为指南。每一份差不多相当于一个中等大小的苹果,一碗什锦沙拉或是三个甜点勺那么多生的、熟的、罐装的或速冻的蔬菜。 /201408/321007。

  Women search high and low for a truly great guy. When I was in my teens, I thought I could have it all: the guy with the model looks, fabulous family, fantastic job, who knows his purpose in life and knows to automatically rub my feet when I get home from work.女人总是寻寻觅觅,期待遇到完美的白马王子。年轻时我就以为自己可以拥有一切:那个男人相貌英俊、家境殷实、工作体面;他不仅清楚自己的人生目标,还懂得在我下班回家后对我倍加呵护。Obviously, I had a quick wake-up call that the fairy tale I dreamed of didn’t exist! That didn’t mean I couldn’t have what I wanted, it just meant I had to reevaluate some of the qualities that I wanted my partner to have. Here are seven of the most important qualities women find attractive in men:显然,我很快被敲了一记警钟,意识到这种童话根本就不存在!当然,这并不表示我无法拥有自己渴望的东西,只是说明我应该重新考虑对另一半品质的期许。下面就是女人认为男人最有魅力的七大特质: /201403/280476

  

  In this time of year for heart-shaped boxes of chocolate, I hope it won#39;t seem too cynical to ask an objective scientific question: Are we humans actually monogamous by nature?又到了一年中一盒盒心形巧克力受宠的日子,我希望这时候问一个客观的科学问题不会太煞风景:我们人类一夫一妻真的是天性吗?Our cultural landscape doesn#39;t help much in answering that. We praise stable, devoted relationships, yet we that are titillated and tempted by alternatives. A large percentage of marriages end in divorce, yet a far smaller percentage of married people get divorced-that is, our high divorce rate results disproportionately from serial divorcers.我们的文化背景对于回答这个问题并没有多大帮助。我们赞许稳定和忠诚的关系,但对于相反的情况我们又会感到兴奋和受到诱惑。以离婚告终的婚姻占了婚姻总数的很大比例,但最终结过婚的人群中离婚人士所占比例却很小。这意味着我们的高离婚率主要是一些人多次离婚的结果。Anthropology doesn#39;t give a clear answer either. Historically, most cultures have allowed polygamy. But within such cultures, most people are monogamous. In the numerous cultures where polygamy is a function of wealth, there are no doubt many monogamous men who would be polygamous if they could buy more wives. And then, of course, there are the rare polyandrous cultures where one woman may have multiple husbands.人类学家也没有给出明确的。从历史上看,很多文化都允许有一夫多妻。但在这些文化中,很多人都是一夫一妻。在那些一夫多妻与财富相关的诸多文化中,毫无疑问的是,许多只有一个妻子的男性在有能力买到更多妻子的时候会选择一夫多妻。当然,在少数文化中也有一妻多夫的现象。Other primates offer some insights into our human nature. Among the hundreds of primate species, some are polygamous (including our close relatives, chimps and baboons), and others monogamous (such as gibbons and marmosets). Each group has a different cluster of biological and behavioral traits.我们可以从其他灵长类动物身上了解一些人类的天性。在种类数以百计的灵长类动物中,一些是“一夫一妻”(包括人类的近亲黑猩猩和狒狒),其他一些是“一夫多妻”(例如长臂猿和狨猴)。每一种灵长类动物都有一系列不同的生物和行为特征。Among polygamous primates, males typically spend much of their time competing for high rank in dominance hierarchies and for mating access to females. Males are far more aggressive, bigger, heavier and more muscular than females and have bigger canines-the better to slash an opponent with. Male baboons, for example, have twice the body weight and canine length of females. Such primates are often called, for good reason, #39;tournament#39; species.在“一夫多妻”的灵长类动物中,雄性动物通常用大量时间来争夺更高的统领地位、以及与雌性交配的机会。和雌性动物相比,雄性动物更具攻击性、体型更大、更重且肌肉更发达,并有更尖利的犬齿,这些都更有利于攻击对手。例如,雄性狒狒的体重和犬齿长度是雌性的两倍。出于这些理由,此类灵长类动物通常被归为“竞赛类”。Males in these species have higher metabolic rates and shorter life spans than females, and they basically put zero effort into caring for kids. In other words, all a female gets from a mate are his genes, and females select for males with good genes. This has led to the evolution of conspicuous, costly displays in males that advertise good genes. These features-flamboyant facial coloration, big capes of hair, silver backs-are the primate equivalents of the peacockery of peacocks (a classic polygamous species).和雌性相比,此类动物中的雄性新陈代谢率更高,寿命更短,它们基本上不负责照看后代。换言之,雌性动物能从雄性配偶那里获得的只是它的基因,雌性动物会选择基因好的雄性动物。这导致雄性动物进化出显著且代价高昂的特征,以表现出它们良好的基因。这些特征包括鲜艳的面部颜色、浓毛、银色的背部等,这些都是灵长类动物中类似孔雀开屏那样用来吸引雌性的特征。(孔雀是典型的“一夫多妻”动物。)Because fertile females will mate with multiple males, male-male competition extends to sperm competition. By primate standards, polygamous male primates have large testes (as a percentage of body weight) and high rates of sperm production. And they happily mate with anyone in the county who is ovulating.有生育能力的雌性会同多个雄性交配,所以雄性之间的竞争从精子就开始了。按照灵长类的标准,“多配偶制”的雄性灵长类动物往往有较大的睾丸(依据睾丸占身体重量的比例来衡量)和较强的精子制造能力,它们愿意和任何能够排卵的同类交配。Things are quite different among monogamous #39;pair bonding#39; primates. Critically, males do much of the infant care. Thus, you don#39;t see a male indiscriminately mating left and right (or fighting for the chance to do so), since he#39;ll be doing a lot of work if there#39;s a child. In these primates there isn#39;t a high degree of #39;sexual dimorphism#39;-sex differences in body size, musculature, metabolism and life span-and males don#39;t have those garish secondary sexual characteristics of males of polygamous species. Testes are small, sperm count low, mating infrequent.但在“一夫一妻”的灵长类动物中,情况截然不同。这一群体的雄性承担大部分照顾后代的工作。你看不到雄性到处留情(或为争取交配机会而争斗),因为雄性有很多事情要做(如果有孩子的话)。在这些灵长类动物中,雌雄之间在体形、肌肉、新陈代谢、寿命等方面差异并不十分明显,雄性也不像多配偶物种的雄性那样具备很多第二性征。它们的睾丸较小,精子数量少,交配也没那么频繁。These profiles are consistent. If 10 seconds into watching a newly discovered type of primate you see that males are twice the size of females and have flashing neon noses, the issue is settled: it#39;s a polygamous species. If you spend forever trying to tell the sexes apart, they#39;re monogamous.这些特征是始终如一的。对于新发现的灵长类物种,只需要看10秒钟,如果其雄性的体形是雌性的两倍,而且有发亮的红鼻子,那么毋庸置疑,这是一个多配偶的物种。如果很长时间都不能分辨雌雄,那么它就是单配偶物种。So by these various biological measures, are humans a pair-bonding or a tournament species? Neither. Across populations, men are roughly 10% taller and 20% heavier than women, need 20% more calories and live 6% shorter-more sexually dimorphic than monogamous species, less than polygamous species. Moreover, compared with, say, monogamous gibbons, human males have bigger testes and higher sperm counts...but pale in comparison to polygamous chimps. Measure after measure, it#39;s the same.所以从多种多样的生物指标来判断,人类是单配偶物种还是多配偶物种呢?都不是。人类的男性身高、体重和需要的热量分别比女性多大约10%、20%和20%,寿命比女性短6%,这种性别差异要比单配偶物种明显,但不如多配偶物种。举例来说,人类男性的睾丸大小和精子数量均超过单配偶的长臂猿,但不如多配偶的黑猩猩。其他指标也是如此。It turns out that we aren#39;t monogamous or polygamous by nature. As everyone from poets to divorce attorneys can attest, we are by nature a profoundly confused species-somewhere in between.所以人类本质上既非“一夫一妻”,也不是“一夫多妻”。无论是诗人还是离婚律师,都可以明,人类本质上是一个介于中间地带的深奥复杂的物种。 /201402/275793

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